South Africa targets new satellites

first_img7 October 2011 South Africa is planning to build its third satellite, to form part of a new African satellite constellation, as part of a government drive to grow the country’s share of the global market for small- to medium-sized space systems. “Our intention is to expand our investment in ‘micro’ satellites, building on the existing SumbandilaSat platform,” Science and Technology Minister Naledi Pandor told delegates at the 62nd International Astronautical Congress, the prestigious annual congress of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF), in Cape Town this week. The country’s second satellite, the two-year-old SumbandilaSat, has been out of commission since a blast of solar radiation damaged its on-board computer in July. Sandile Malinga, chief executive of the SA National Space Agency (Sansa), announced last month that South Africa hoped to start building a new, fully operational satellite – not just a prototype or “pathfinder” satellite such as SumbandilaSat – as early as 2012, for possible launch by 2014/15. The new satellite would cost in the region of R400-million – compared to the R26-million spent on SumbandilaSat – and would also be used for earth observation, in line with the country’s space strategy, which seeks to apply satellite data to help to improve livelihoods, reduce poverty and manage natural disasters in the country and the region.African Resource Management Constellation Ideally, the new satellite will be one of at least four satellites together forming the African Resource Management (ARM) Constellation of satellites which was formally agreed on between South Africa, Nigeria, Algeria and Kenya in 2009. “The basic idea behind the ARM concept is that a number of African countries each contribute one satellite to the constellation, but can access data from all the other satellites as well,” Pandor said in Cape Town this week, adding that ARM was “open to other interested African countries to join on the basis of their needs and capabilities.” Nigeria and Algeria each have two satellites already up and running, Business Day noted this week, as does Egypt, while Angola has one – leaving South Africa somewhat lagging in Africa’s “space race”. “But unlike the others, we build our own satellites,” Business Day quoted Malinga as saying this week. SumbandilaSat was built by Stellenbosch-based company Sun Space and Information Systems (SunSpace). Its predecessor, Sunsat, launched in 1999, was designed and built by Stellenbosch University staff and postgraduate students, leading to the formation of SunSpace, in which the state is seeking to acquire a majority shareholding.Space facilities ‘that are unique in Africa’ “SunSpace has secured orders from international clients for satellites and subsystems, and has also demonstrated that it can train engineers in other emerging space nations,” Pandor told delegates at the IAF’s congress this week. “In the field of satellite development, South Africa possesses some space facilities that are unique in Africa. These include a satellite assembly, test and integration facility, situated not far from here in Grabouw, and a launch facility situated at Arniston [also in the Western Cape].” Further development in this field, Pandor said, would be accompanied by the development of applications for the provision of geospatial, telecommunications, timing and positioning products and services in the country. “Here we are working to develop our capabilities in earth observation, communication and position, timing, and navigation,” which would play a big role in understanding the causes and effects and climate change, among other applications. “We are particularly interested in South Africa in tele-medicine and tele-education, and we have only just begun to tap the possibilities,” Pandor said.SumbandilaSat programme ‘successful’ While SumbandilaSat is now out of action, it had succeeded as a satellite technology demonstrator programme, Malinga maintains. The satellite was designed and built from scratch in one year, at low cost, by South African engineers, who also developed a world-class mission control system for the programme. SumbandilaSat delivered over 1 000 very usable, cloud-free images before being damaged by solar radiation, and became well-known by the amateur radio satellite society worldwide for the excellent results from its amateur radio payload. “The success of the programme as assessed by the international space science community has put South Africa on the map for its ability to develop and operate small- and medium-sized satellite programmes,” Malinga said in a statement last month. “Many of the nine black satellite engineers trained as a result of the programme are still active in the satellite industry and are performing excellently.”SA exploring own satellite launch capability Malinga said that Sansa was also exploring whether or not South Africa should try to establish its own satellite launch capability. At least one South African company has an interest in this. Marcom Aeronautics & Space recently announced that it was developing a rocket engine as part of its development of a two-stage, liquid-fueled launch vehicle capable of delivering a 1 000kg payload into low-Earth orbit. Sunday Times reported last year that the government was considering reopening apartheid-era space rocket launch sites in order to fast-track the country’s national space programme. Last month, defenceWeb reported that South Africa “has existing infrastructure that could be utilised for local satellite launches, notably facilities at Air Force Base Overberg.” Marcom head Mark Comninos told defenceWeb that, although Overberg’s launch pad was destroyed as part of South Africa’s nuclear stand-down and the payload processing facility was mothballed, the site had retained almost all of its space launch capability, including mission control centre, radar and telemetry tracking facilities and range safety systems. “According to the UK Space Strategy, the overall world market for the space industry is likely to grow from £160-billion in 2008, to at least £400-billion by 2030, with a yearly growth rate of 5%,” defenceWeb wrote. “In September 2010, Space News reported that the global satellite market stands at between 20 and 30 satellite launches a year. “In April 2010, the trade publication Satellite Markets & Research said that Africa was one of the fastest growing markets for telecommunications and satellite services and is growing at nearly twice the global average of 6-7%. This growth is set to continue well into the next decade, spurred by demand for cellular and internet connectivity as well as government initiatives, Satellite Markets reported. “An estimated 20 new satellites with coverage on Africa will be launched in the next five years to address the current capacity shortage on the continent.” SAinfo reporterlast_img read more

2019 Ohio water quality update

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Harold Watters, Ohio State University Extension agronomistLake Erie wasn’t as bad as expected. What? We missed 1.5 million acres of crops, and from my eye mostly in northwest Ohio. But here is the deal: you did apply fertilizer last year, and probably the year before. We farm in a leaky system and I learned this week that entropy is working against us — meaning it will get more random. So, yes it’s leaky and will perhaps get a little more leaky. We did not plant as many crops and yes we applied less fertilizer in the Lake Erie basin, but the leaks still happen even without the crop because we still have rain, and rain moves that little tiny bit of phosphorus off your farm and downstream.This from NOAA about the Harmful Algal Bloom on Lake Erie, on Oct. 31, (http://coastalscience.noaa.gov/research/habs/forecasting):The Microcystis cyanobacteria bloom in 2019 had a severity index (SI) of 7.3, indicating a relatively severe bloom.This was more severe than 2018 (3.6) and somewhat less than 2017 (8.0). The severity index captures the amount of bloom biomass over the peak 30 days of the bloom.The measured bloom severity of 7.3 matched the forecast severity of 7.5 (with likely range of 7 to 8). This bloom severity was consistent with the total bioavailable phosphorus (TBP) load into western Lake Erie from the Maumee River.While the discharge volume and total phosphorus loads approached those in 2011, a lower concentration of TBP compared to recent years led to lower TBP loads and allowed us to avoid a 2011-sized bloom.Meaning, while it could have been worse, the cropping situation likely reduced the amount of P loss.  And what about the Ohio River HAB? Did what we do in northwest Ohio cause that? I don’t think so, but again we farm in a leaky system across all of Ohio so I am not surprised we had problems in the southern part of the state too. Because you know what, it rained down there as well.This was in the USEPA October 2019 Freshwater HABs Newsletter: “A harmful algae bloom (HAB) occurred on the Ohio River in the Cincinnati / Northern Kentucky area during September and October of 2019. During this time, ORSANCO (the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission) worked with Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky to monitor an algae bloom in the Ohio River. ORSANCO coordinated sample collection and lab analysis with member states. The data from these samples are available: http://www.orsanco.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Toxin-results_updated11.5.19.pdf.What do we do about this? First, understand we operate in an environment where we grow crops that are rain fed. We actually get more rain than we need to grow a crop. And second, we need about 20 to 22 inches of rain to grow a great crop and we got quite a bit more than that this year. At my location we were seven inches above average on precipitation for the past year and I had no rain after July 1. Others in southern Ohio were as much as 10 to 16 inches above normal.For that water that goes south, the area of concern is the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico.“The measured size of the dead zone, also called the hypoxic zone, is the 8th largest in the 33-year record and exceeds the 5,770-square-mile average from the past five years. The annual survey was led by scientists at Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium (LUMCON) during a research cruise from July 23 to 29 aboard LUMCON’s R/V Pelican.” See the reference at: https://www.noaa.gov/media-release/large-dead-zone-measured-in-gulf-of-mexico.We at OSU continue our efforts to share with producers and consulting agronomists ways to reduce the water quality concerns for both northern and southern Ohio. We will continue to talk about some new tools that you can put in place to slow movement of nutrients to our waters. They are:The updated Tri-State Fertilizer recommendations, data is being shared now for the Ohio portion and it is hoped to be published as the “Tri-State” this winter: https://soilfertility.osu.edu.We have completed work on the new P-risk index and hope that will be rolled out soon.Application risk management tools? There are a couple of these to help you plan when a fertilizer or manure application is suggested or not: Ohio Applicator Forecast (from ODA) https://www.agri.ohio.gov/wps/portal/gov/oda/divisions/plant-health/resources/ohio-applicator-forecast and the OSU Field Application Resource Monitor (F.A.R.M.) can give present (and past) forecasts https://farm.bpcrc.osu.edu.last_img read more

Roger Federer comeback halted by Tommy Haas in Stuttgart

first_imgWhat ‘missteps’? WATCH: Firefighters rescue baby seal found in parking garage Federer claimed his last grass-court title in 2015 in Halle, where he is an eight-time champion.Also Wednesday, Philipp Kohlschreiber upset fifth-seeded Steve Johnson of the United States 7-6 (3), 5-7, 7-6 (6), while sixth-seeded Mischa Zverev, another German, defeated qualifier Yannick Hanfmann 7-6 (1), 6-2 to secure his place in the quarterfinals, where he next faces Haas.No. 4 Lucas Pouille of France came back to eventually beat Germany’s Jan-Lennard Struff 4-6, 7-6 (5), 7-6 (8) for a quarterfinal against Kohlschreiber.Pouille, like top-seeded Federer, had been given a bye to the second round. View comments ADVERTISEMENT 1 dead in Cavite blast, fire Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next LATEST STORIES Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken “I’ve even shocked myself a bit,” said Haas, who is ranked 302nd and was given a wild card for the grass-court tournament. “I’m a bit speechless. It’s hard to find words.”Haas, who hadn’t beaten his good friend since the 2012 final in Halle, improved to 4-13 against Federer, who hadn’t played since winning the Miami Open in early April.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“If you don’t take your chances like I didn’t, leading a set and a break, you really only have yourself to blame at the end,” Federer said. “You’ve got to acknowledge the fact that he was a bit better. It’s quite frustrating, but that’s the way it goes sometimes.”The 35-year-old Swiss had skipped the clay-court season to recuperate from a busy start to the year that saw him capture his 18th Grand Slam at the Australian Open. Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ World’s 50 Best Restaurants launches new drinking and dining guide MOST READ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Roger Federer of Switzerland returns the ball to Germany’s Tommy Haas during their match at the Mercedes Cup tennis tournament in Stuttgart, Germany. APSTUTTGART, Germany — Roger Federer was beaten on his return from a two-month break, losing 2-6, 7-6 (8), 6-4 to German veteran Tommy Haas in the second round of the Stuttgart Open on Wednesday (Thursday Manila time).The 39-year-old Haas, who is playing his last season before retirement, saved nine of the 12 break points he faced and converted two of his three chances to deal the Swiss great just his second defeat of the season.ADVERTISEMENT Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ Mayweather, McGregor agree to August super fightlast_img read more

Ohio State Is A Huge Favorite In Its Redemption Game vs. Virginia Tech In Week 1

first_imgVirginia Tech fans cheer on the Hokies.The lone loss in Ohio State’s 2014 national championship season came in Week 2 against Virginia Tech. The Buckeyes fell to the Hokies, 35-21. Redemption is expected on Sept. 7. Ohio State will open its national championship-defending season in Blacksburg, Va., against Virginia Tech on Labor Day. A blowout victory is predicted for Urban Meyer’s squad. The sportsbook 5Dimes released its initial odds for Week 1 and Ohio State is a huge favorite. Ohio State #Buckeyes will open the season favored by 19-points over the Virginia Tech Hokies. #OSU #OhioSt #OhioState (via 5Dimes)— Johnny Detroit (@Johnny_Detroit) February 12, 2015Ohio State and Virginia Tech’s kickoff time has yet to be released, but with the game occurring on Labor Day, a night game at Lane Stadium is probable.last_img read more

Jim Harbaugh Blasts Nick Saban In Twitter Response To Satellite Camp Rant

first_imgJim Harbaugh argues with a referee.ANN ARBOR, MI – NOVEMBER 25: Jim Harbaugh head coach of the Michigan Wolverines talks with the referee first half against the Ohio State Buckeyes on November 25, 2017 at Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor, Michigan. (Photo by Gregory Shamus/Getty Images)It happened, everyone. Jim Harbaugh is taking direct shots at Nick Saban on Twitter. This afternoon, Saban went on a lengthy rant against satellite camps, which Harbaugh has been the loudest proponent of over the last two seasons. Saban mentioned Harbaugh directly during his screed, though he was fairly diplomatic when bringing up the Michigan head coach. From AL.com:“I’m not blaming Jim Harbaugh, I’m not saying anything about him,” Saban said. “I’m just saying it’s bad for college football. Jim Harbaugh can do whatever he wants to do. I’m not saying anything bad about him if he thinks that’s what’s best. There needs to be somebody that looks out for what’s best for the game, not what’s best for the Big 10 or what’s best for the SEC, or what’s best for Jim Harbaugh, but what’s best for the game of college football — the integrity of the game, the coaches, the players and the people that play it. That’s bigger than all of this.Apparently, that doesn’t matter to Harbaugh, who put an unnamed Saban on blast moments ago.“Amazing” to me- Alabama broke NCAA rules & now their HC is lecturing us on the possibility of rules being broken at camps. Truly “amazing.”— Coach Harbaugh (@CoachJim4UM) June 1, 2016Jim Harbaugh won’t stop until he’s taken shots at every single rival coach in the college football world.last_img read more

Jason Momoa Features On Cover Of Water Sustainability Publication

first_imgMediaplanet has announced the multiplatform distribution of “Water & Sustainability,” encouraging readers to take initiative in their homes, local communities and support technological advancements working to solve our international issue with water and sustainability.Innovations in technology have pushed the industry towards the greatest advancements of our time: but we still have work to be done.The print component of “Water & Sustainability” is distributed within this Wednesday’s edition of USA Today in New York, Washington D.C., Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, Las Vegas and Los Angeles with a circulation of approximately 250,000 copies and an estimated readership of 750,000. The digital component is distributed nationally through a vast social media strategy and across a network of top news sites and partner outlets. To explore the digital version of the campaign, click here.Jason Momoa, warrior on and off screen, shines on the front cover of the print publication. Through an in-depth and exclusive interview, he urges readers to become involved in their own local water projects. Atlanta rap native Michael Render aka “Killer Mike” drills deep into his passion for Atlanta’s 300 million dollar quarry endeavor. “It’s been the highlight of my year,” explains Render, an Atlanta native and philanthropist. “I strut with a different step, knowing there’s a drill named for me.”This campaign was made possible with the support of Viqua, charity:water, Pentair, Jason Momoa, 3M, Speakman, the U.S. Water Alliance and many more.last_img read more

Syncrude outage expected to ease pipeline congestion boost heavy oil prices

first_imgCALGARY, A.B. – A production shutdown at Syncrude Canada’s oilsands mine and upgrader complex in northern Alberta is expected to free up pipeline space out of Western Canada and strengthen prices for Canadian heavy oil.The company has said production of upgraded bitumen could remain offline at its works north of Fort McMurray through July. The stoppage was caused by a power outage last week.The interruption should help alleviate pipeline congestion in Western Canada that has increased the difference in price for Western Canadian Select bitumen blend oil versus New York-traded West Texas Intermediate crude oil, said Canadian analysts with Tudor Pickering Holt & Co. in a research report. The differential spiked at about US$30 per barrel in February, fell to the high teens in April and May as oilsands projects went through maintenance shutdowns, but rose again in the past few weeks as output again filled pipelines. It closed at US$25.50 last Friday.The differential will likely revert back to US$13 to $15 per barrel in July, Barclays analysts predicted in a report.Syncrude has the capacity to produce 350,000 barrels per day but Barclays estimated it has averaged only 245,000 bpd so far this year because of planned and unplanned downtime. It lowered its estimate of third-quarter production from 305,000 bpd to between 200,000 and 215,000 bpd, adding it expects Syncrude to post significantly higher costs per barrel.The analysts say the news is negative for Suncor Energy Inc., which owns about 59 percent of Syncrude, and Imperial Oil Ltd., with a 25 percent stake.On June 7, Suncor said in a news release it was ready for “strong production” this year after completing maintenance at facilities including Syncrude.(THE CANADIAN PRESS)last_img read more

IPL Opener: CSK veterans ready to slog out against RCB

first_imgChennai: They made ‘Dad’s Army’ sound cool last year and defending champions Chennai Super Kings’ battle-hardened veterans are ready to prove that age is just a number when they take on Virat Kohli’s perennial underachievers Royal Challengers Bangalore in Saturday’s opening IPL encounter. For Virat Kohli, it couldn’t be a bigger statement if his young side could start off with a bang at Mahendra Singh Dhoni’s ‘spritual home’, a task which will be easier said than done. Also Read – Puducherry on top after 8-wkt win over Chandigarh CSK’s core team is the oldest in the tournament — 37-year-olds Dhoni and Shane Watson, 35-year-old Dwayne Bravo, 34-year-old Faf du Plessis, 33-year-olds Ambati Rayudu and Kedar Jadhav, soon-to-be 32 Suresh Raina, . Then they have two spinners with truckloads of experience — 39-year-old Imran Tahir and 38-year-old Harbhajan Singh, who have ability to change the complexion of a game with one-off over. Even the two out-of-favour India players, leg-spinner Karn Sharma (31) and seamer Mohit Sharma (30) are on the wrong side of 30’s. Also Read – Vijender’s next fight on Nov 22, opponent to be announced later However when it comes to match awareness, the CSK players are second to none. The most consistent franchise of the Indian Premier League, who have always been in the top four, are a formidable side at home with a slow turner and a vocal crowd complementing the quality. While CSK is a three-time champion, the Bengaluru franchise is probably the biggest underachiever despite boasting of some of the best names in its squad. The outcome of Saturday’s game will depend on which team bowls better and holds its nerve as both side have players who can turn a match on its head in a jiffy. CSK’s Ambati Rayudu and Ravindra Jadeja will be keen to step up their performances and seal a spot in the Indian World Cup squad. While RCB paceman Umesh Yadav will also look to shine in the IPL and make a case for selection in the England-bound playing XI. A lot has been said about the workload, especially that of the bowlers, which needs to be monitored. CSK head coach Stephen Fleming said on Wednesday that it was up to the players and as professionals, they would be aware of the requirements. CSK enjoy an impressive record against RCB, having won 15 matches and lost seven with one no-result. The hosts haven’t lost to its rival since 2014. While the home team has a well-balanced squad with most of the bases covered, RCB is facing concerns over the availability of some foreign players at certain stages of the tournament. Leg-spinner Yuzvendra Chahal will again be the key man for RCB as he has been over the past seasons and will need the rest of the bowling attack to step up. Kohli has always led from the front and his exploits in the IPL are well documented, the RCB skipper will begin yet another campaign aware that his form could prove vital in the success of his side in the gruelling tournament. Squads(from) Chennai Super Kings: MS Dhoni (captain & WK), Suresh Raina, Ambati Rayudu, Shane Watson, Faf du Plessis, Murali Vijay, Kedar Jadhav, Sam Billings, Ravindra Jadeja, Dhruv Shorey, Chaitanya Bishnoi, Rituraj Gaikwad, Dwayne Bravo, Karn Sharma, Imran Tahir, Harbhajan Singh, Mitchell Santner, Shardul Thakur, Mohit Sharma, K M Asif, David Willey, Deepak Chahar, N Jagadeesan (wk). Royal Challengers Bangalore: Virat Kohli (captain), AB de Villiers, Parthiv Patel (WK), Marcus Stoinis, Shimron Hetmyer, Shivam Dube, Nathan Coulter-Nile, Washington Sundar, Umesh Yadav, Yuzvendra Chahal, Mohammed Siraj, Heinrich Klaasen (WK), Moeen Ali, Colin de Grandhomme, Pawan Negi, Tim Southee, Akshdeep Nath, Milind Kumar, Devdutt Padikkal, Gurkeerat Singh, Prayas Ray Barman, Kulwant Kejroliya, Navdeep Saini, Himmat Singh. Match starts at 8 pm.last_img read more

From scarcity to security

first_imgSingapore has developed from being a water-scarce developing nation into a world leader in water management within a few decades. Since independence in 1965, one of the main concerns of the government has been to provide clean water for the growing domestic and non-domestic sectors. In 1965, Singapore was dependent on the state of Johor, Malaysia, for water resources under two agreements: one signed in 1961 and a second one signed in 1962. In view of this dependence, long-term security of water became an essential consideration for the city-state. As a result, the country developed and executed plans to enhance water security and self-sufficiency. Innovations covered aspects of policy, planning, management, institutional development, finances, technology, and most recently, societal behaviour. Also Read – A special kind of bondThe main reason for Singapore’s success in managing its water resources is its parallel emphasis on supply and demand management, including conventional and non-conventional sources of water — reused water and desalinated water. Singapore’s entire water cycle is managed by Public Utilities Board (PUB) that collects, treats and reuses used water on an extensive scale, a step that very few countries have taken. The supply of water has been further expanded by reducing water that’s unaccounted for, which is defined as actual water loss due to leaks, plus apparent water losses arising from meter inaccuracies. Also Read – Insider threat managementAlso, Singapore does not have illegal connections and all water connections are metered. The unaccounted-for water has decreased from about 9.5 per cent in 1990 to about 5 per cent in recent years, one of the lowest rates in the world. Water conservation is encouraged in the domestic sector and mandated in the non-domestic sector too. These include efficiency measures, both engineering solutions and human behaviour, such as appliances within PUB’s efficiency ratings. What has made Singapore different and possess the best water management practices in the world? The answer is government support, long-term planning, and realisation that clean and reliable water resources are essential for overall socio-development. Following the policy paradigm of “think ahead, think again and think across”, Singapore has looked for every opportunity to collect, treat, reuse and produce the necessary water resources not only at present but in a horizon that spans several decades. The city-state water resources planning, governance, and practices hold lessons for every other developed and developing city. It is worth studying.(The author is a senior research fellow at the Institute of Water Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, and editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Water Resources Development. The views expressed are strictly personal)last_img read more

Algeria’s Bouteflika nominated for 4th term: party

first_imgALGIERS- Algeria’s 76-year-old President Abdelaziz Bouteflika was on Saturday designated his party’s candidate in the 2014 presidential election, his National Liberation Front (FLN) said. Bouteflika, in power since 1999, had been largely unseen for months because of health problems before he presided over a cabinet meeting on September 29 for the first time this year.Since 2005 he has been honorary president of the FLN, which has 208 seats in the 462-seat national assembly. “The central committee has chosen the president of the party, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, to be the FLN candidate in the next presidential election,” said a party statement issued after a meeting in the capital.“The choice was a natural one given the positive assessment” of his three terms as Algerian head of state, FLN head Amar Saidani said in a speech at Saturday’s meeting.Bouteflika returned home in July after nearly three months in France recovering from a mini-stroke, and critics have said his health concerns should rule out extending his time in office.But the president’s allies had indicated they would back him should he seek re-election next year.One of the few remaining veterans of the war of independence against France, Bouteflika came to power after helping to end the country’s civil war in the 1990s.But in addition to health concerns in recent years, his rule has also been dogged by corruption scandals implicating members of his inner circle.last_img read more