This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. “Mm-wave frequency allocation around 57-66 GHz can deliver bandwidths in excess of 1 Gb/s compared to few Mb/s offered by current third generation mobile systems or 100 Mb/s offered by Wi-Fi systems,” Lim told PhysOrg.com. “There are even higher mm-wave frequencies which have much larger bandwidths available. However, the technologies for these are not yet matured and over time, the mm-wave band could be exploited to give bandwidths in excess of 10 Gb/s over short-range wireless.“Due to the short transmission distances associated with mm-wave frequencies, applications in personal area networking would be the most appropriate,” she said. “Providing fast wireless connectivity between your hi-def display screens and video content on a storage device, for example, or connecting a range of devices such as laptops, media storage and displays for entertainment and business interactivity applications, to name a few, will soon require bandwidths in excess of 100 Mb/s connectivity.”Transportation and integration optionsRegarding the basic architecture of a Fi-Wi system, the researchers looked at three possible approaches for transporting mm-wave wireless signals over optical fibers. The simplest scheme, called RF-over-fiber, involves directly transporting the wireless signals, so that no frequency translation is required at the base stations. The second method involves downconverting the mm-wave wireless signals to a lower intermediate frequency (IF) at the central office before optically transmitting the signals to the base station where they are upconverted, which is called IF-over-fiber. The third method, called baseband-over-fiber, involves transporting the wireless signals as very low-frequency baseband signals over optical fibers from the central office to the base station, and then upconverting the information to the mm-wave frequency at the base station. Ultimately, there is a tradeoff between simplicity and robustness in the three methods: while the RF-over-fiber method is the simplest, the signals are more susceptible to various impairments as they propagate along the optical fiber. Many research teams have been working on a number of strategies to overcome these impairments. The authors of the current study emphasize that these improvements are necessary for achieving good signal quality and overall system performance. Another requirement is for fiber-wireless systems to be integrated with the existing optical infrastructure. The engineers explain that the rising level of optical fiber infrastructure deployment close to residential premises provides an ideal opportunity to interconnect the wireless with fixed wired networks. This integration would enable fiber-wireless systems to take advantage of current technologies such as wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM), which combines multiple signals on a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths. Previous research has demonstrated that WDM can significantly increase the capacity and success rates of fiber-wireless systems. In addition, research has shown that there are a range of technology options that support such integration cost-effectively without compromising the performance required of these very high-speed networks.Overall, mm-wave fiber-wireless technology has the potential to open up the wireless spectrum as the use of small, portable communication devices continues to grow. Serving as a short-distance technology, the wireless portion can cover the “last mile” of data transmission to customers, as well as in-building networking, with the potential for faster speeds and lower costs. For these reasons, fiber-wireless systems would make the most sense in densely populated areas, and also for disaster recovery environments where wired communication lines are unavailable. As Lim explained, fiber-wireless could be deployed in the near future.“We feel that fiber-wireless could be commercially ready in 3-5 years with immediate applications to new base station installations,” she said. “The adoption of Fi-Wi technologies to 3G and 4G wireless will be the most likely market in the immediate term. As the fiber deployment extends to buildings and premises, mm-wave Fi-Wi will take off.” This congestion problem was not unanticipated by electrical engineers, who, for the past two decades, have been developing new wireless technologies that use different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Specifically, these wireless technologies are exploiting the large, unused bandwidths of extremely high frequency (EHF) microwaves in the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency region. One particular area of interest is the unlicensed 60 GHz frequency band, which has 5-mm wavelengths. (In contrast, the heavily burdened lower microwave regions have frequencies of 2-4 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths of 7.5-15 cm.) However, the 60 GHz frequency band is not without challenges, either. Since wireless signals at 60 GHz frequencies have inherently high propagation losses, they are targeted toward short-range, in-building, high-speed applications. To maintain strong incoming wireless signals for buildings, many antenna base stations must be built near customers. These base stations, in turn, would receive broadband signals from a smaller number of distant central offices. The signals between central offices and base stations would be transmitted through long-range optical fibers. Since such a system uses both optical fibers and mm-wave wireless transmission, the technology is called “fiber-wireless” (Fi-Wi). The advantage of bimodal Fi-Wi systems is that they can enjoy the strengths of both optical and wireless technologies – specifically, the inherently large bandwidth of optical fiber and the large, unused bandwidth in the mm-wave wireless spectrum. For this reason, a hybrid system has the potential to provide very high data transmission rates with minimal time delay.Recently, a team of electrical engineers working on fiber-wireless technologies has analyzed the progress made in this field over the past two decades. In a paper published in the Journal of Lightwave Technology, Christina Lim, from the University of Melbourne, and her coauthors have presented an overview of the many different techniques proposed to optically transport mm-wave wireless signals and overcome some of the challenges involved. (PhysOrg.com) — By looking at the latest electronic communication devices that have emerged over the past few years, it’s clear that the trend of smaller, portable devices is strong and expected to continue. Yet while all these notebooks, netbooks, and tablet PCs are becoming more and more popular, their explosive growth also poses a problem: these wireless devices are hogging the already congested lower microwave frequency region of the wireless spectrum. CSIRO designs world’s best mm-wave chips for communications and security More information: Christina Lim, et al. “Fiber-Wireless Networks and Subsystem Technologies.” Journal of Lightwave Technology. Vol. 28, No. 4. February 15, 2010. Doi:10.1109/JLT.2009.2031423 Citation: Fiber-wireless (Fi-Wi) to provide ultra-high-speed, short-range communication (2010, March 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-03-fiber-wireless-fi-wi-ultra-high-speed-short-range.html Explore further A mm-wave Fi-Wi network. An optical fiber backbone (red) provides broadband connections between the central offices and antenna base stations. Then, the base stations wirelessly transmit 5-mm-wave (60 GHz) signals to customers. Within buildings and homes, the short-range wireless signals can provide high-speed connectivity (faster than 1 Gb/s) for a variety of wireless, high-bandwidth communication devices. Credit: Lim, et al.
A prototype holographic drive system designed by GE researchers in the Applied Optics Lab at GE Global Research in Niskayuna, NY. Citation: GE announces 500 GB holographic disc writer that runs at Blue-Ray speed (2011, July 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-07-ge-gb-holographic-disc-writer.html (PhysOrg.com) — GE’s technology research group has announced the development of an optical disc writer capable of writing 500 GB of data onto a disc the same physical size as a DVD, at roughly the same speed as Blue Ray technology. This comes two years after announcing the holographic technology that was used to first imprint the discs with 25 times as much data as a Blue Ray Disc can hold. Explore further By making an announcement about an advancement in what most see as a dying technology, GE is taking somewhat of a risk, but Peter Lorraine, Manager at GE Global Research, who will be presenting today at the IEEE’s Joint International Symposium on Optical Memory & Optical Data Storage meeting is expected to pooh-pooh such notions and instead explain how the new technology could be used for long term storage for data, that the company says, will last for a hundred years (presumably if stored in ideal conditions).The technology works by initially stamping millions of tiny holographic images into a polycarbonate (a type of thermoplastic polymer) material, then a laser (which uses the same wavelength as Blue Ray technology) is used to erase parts of the holograms to encode data. Write speeds are 4-5 megabytes per second, which is on a par with Blue Ray (4.5 Mbytes/s). With this process the entire surface of the disc can be used, rather than just the four layers on the surface of the disc that Blue Ray is able to use, which is why it can hold so much more.And while critics point out that at such a rate it would take something like a whole day to fill the disc, GE counters by saying that since its primary purpose would be for archival storage, creating specialized writers that use multiple heads could very well be an option; and If such multiple read/write head drives could be created, it seems plausible to believe that such discs would be capable of carrying not just HD/3-D movies, but something even better, such as movies in a super HD (holographic?) format that hasn’t even been discovered yet.GE also points out that because the new writer uses the same wavelength as Blue Ray, its conceivable drives could be made for the new technology that would be backwards compatible, minimizing risk for both developers and end users. The company is expected to begin building arrangements with interested parties to license the new technology in just the new few months, so actual products appearing on the market can’t be too far off. More information: Press release © 2010 PhysOrg.com General Electric Develops a 500GB Optical Disc This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Tornados happen in many places, but because of its unique geography, the U.S. has more than any other country—mainly due to the lack of a large mountain dividing east and west. There has been speculation recently, that global warming is causing more tornados to occur—though it has also been suggested it only seems that way because of how quickly information about tornadic events disseminates in the modern era. The trio at NOAA decided to let hard facts tell the story. They collected weather data from the national storm database, which goes back to 1954, to see if they could coax out any patterns (they only included tornados at least as strong as an F1).As it turns out, the trio did find a pattern, they say the data shows very clearly that the U.S. actually has a trend of having fewer days in which there is a tornado over the past two decades—that’s the good news. The bad news is that on days when there is a tornado, there are more than there used to be. The data shows that back in the 1970’s there were just .6 days a year that had 30 or more tornados—after the turn of the century, that number had risen to 3 days per year. Curiously, the numbers suggest that the country still experiences on average, the same number of tornadoes each year, approximately 1,200—they’re just spread out differently. They also noted that the beginning and end of the tornado “season” in recent years has fluctuated more wildly than the years prior to that.The researchers cannot say of course why the spread of tornados has changed in the U.S., though some might suggest it’s due to global warming or even changes in atmospheric conditions in parts of the country due to pollution or other unknown factors. What is clear, is that something is causing a change, and there is now evidence of it, providing a path for moving forward for better understanding what is really going on. Magazine reporting below average numbers of tornados in 2013 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Image: U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, via Wikimedia Journal information: Science More information: Science 17 October 2014: Vol. 346 no. 6207 pp. 349-352. DOI: 10.1126/science.1257460 © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Data shows fewer tornado days in U.S. but more per event over past couple decades (2014, October 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-tornado-days-event-couple-decades.html Explore further A trio of researches with the U.S.’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has found that though there are fewer total days per year when tornados occur in the U.S., the number that occur on days when there are tornados has increased over the past couple of decades. In their paper published in the journal Science, Harold Brooks, Gregory Carbin and Patrick Marsh describe how they studied weather data over the past half century and what they found when looking for trends.
Figure 2 | AFM and piezoresponse images of CIPS with different thicknesses. (a–c) AFM topography (a) PFM amplitude (b) and PFM phase (c) for CIPS flakes ranging from 100 to 7 nm thick, on doped Si substrate. Scale bar in a, 1 μm. (d,e) AFM topography (d) PFM amplitude (e) and phase (f) of 2–4 layer thick CIPS on Au coated SiO2/Si substrate. Scale bar in d, 500 nm. (g) the height (black) and PFM amplitude (blue) profile along the lines shown in d and e, respectively. L, Layers. Credit: Liu F, et al. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016). Copyright © 2016, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Wang describes the ways in which the researchers addressed these challenges. “To characterize ferroelectricity at nanoscale, the most widely used technique is called piezoresponse force microscopy, or PFM, which utilizes the converse piezoelectric effect.” (In the converse piezoelectric effect, materials become strained when an electric field is applied.) This is a technique that can be implemented using a commercially available atomic force microscope (AFM), in which AC bias can be applied to the AFM probe that serves as a moving electrode on top of the sample. The resulting AC electric field will cause the periodic oscillation of the ferroelectric sample due to this converse piezoelectric effect. The oscillation signal can then be detected by the AFM. “The amplitude of the oscillation represents the piezoelectric response that is proportional to the ferroelectric polarization,” Wang explains, “while the phase of the oscillation represents the direction of the polarization.” In their study, the scientists employed a state-of-the-art approach known as Dual AC Resonance Tracking (DART) PFM developed by Asylum Research to amplify the piezoelectric response by taking advantage of the resonance enhancement. The scientists are planning to study the pyroelectric properties of CuInP2S6 at its two-dimensional limit and apply their findings to developing energy harvesting devices. To that end, he adds, because mechanically exfoliated 2D materials are usually small and unsuitable for device applications, chemical vapor deposition growth of atomically thin CuInP2S6 is under development.”Ferroelectric properties are also very interesting for solar cell applications because of efficient ferroelectric polarization-driven carrier separation,” Liu concludes, “so 2D ferroelectricity-based solar cells could be very interesting, In its liquid phase, 2D ferroelectric CuInP2S6 could be easily hybridized with semiconductor 2D or organic materials – and a solar cell based on these hybrids would be very promising.” Figure 5 | Electric characterization of the vdW CIPS/Si diode. (a) The I–V curves from the typical vdW CIPS/Si diode with 30 nm thick CIPS, by sweeping the bias from 2.5 to −2.5 V, and then back to 2.5 V. Inset is the schematic of the device. (b) Resistance-switching voltage hysteresis loop of the diode measured at a bias voltage of −1.3 V. The schematic representations of the ON and OFF states with respect to the polarization direction are shown in the bottom-left and top-right insets, respectively. (c) Out-of-plane PFM amplitude (black) and phase (blue) measurements on the same diode device shown in a. Credit: Fucai Liu, Lu You, Kyle L. Seyler, Xiaobao Li, Peng Yu et al. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016). Copyright © 2016, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Journal information: Nature Communications More information: Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes, Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016), doi:10.1038/ncomms12357Related:1. Subatomic deformation driven by vertical piezoelectricity from CdS ultrathin films, Science Advances 01 Jul 2016, Vol. 2, no. 7, e1600209, doi:10.1126/sciadv.16002092. Picoscale precision though ultrathin film piezoelectricity, Phys.org (10 August 2016), http://phys.org/news/2016-08-picoscale-precision-ultrathin-piezoelectricity.html Citation: Cool Constructs: Room temperature out-of-plane ferroelectricity at ultrathin atomic limit (2016, September 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-09-cool-room-temperature-out-of-plane-ferroelectricity.html , Science Advances This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Figure 1 | Crystal structure and characterization of CIPS. (a,b) The side view (a) and side view (b) for the crystal structure of CIPS (CuInP2S6) with vdW gap between the layers. Within a layer, the Cu, In and P–P form separate triangular networks. The polarization direction is indicated in by the arrow. (b) The ferroelectric hysteresis loop of a 4-μm-thick CIPS flake. (c) AFM image of the CIPS flakes with different thicknesses. Scale bar, 2 μm. (d) The height profile along the line shown in c. Clear step height of 0.7 nm corresponding to single layer thickness of CIPS can be observed. L, Layers. Credit: Liu F, et al. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016). Copyright © 2016, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. (Phys.org)—Optoelectronic devices that combine electronics and photonics are incorporating two-dimensional (2D) materials for a range of applications. At the same time, cooperative phenomena – in which a system’s individual components appear to act as a single entity rather than independently – have yet to be widely investigated, an important example being ferroelectricity (spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by an electric field) in the 2D limit. Recently, however, scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore have demonstrated room-temperature out-of-plane ferroelectricity (that is, orthogonal to the 2D material) in 2D CuInP2S6 (copper indium thiophosphate) with a ~320 K transition temperature, as well as switchable polarization in 4 nm CuInP2S6 flakes. The researchers state that their findings create the possibility of sensors, actuators, non-volatile memory devices, various van der Waals heterostructures (devices made from layers of dissimilar 2D crystals in which forces are based on molecular attraction or repulsion rather than covalent or ionic bonds), and other novel applications based on 2D ferroelectricity. Finally, in demonstrating a non-volatile memory device with an on/off ratio of ~100 in a CuInP2S6/Si ferroelectric diode, Liu notes that this investigation is just a preliminary demonstration of the possible applications of the 2D ferroelectric material. “A lot of work needs to be done to fully understand the transport mechanisms and how it is coupled to the ferroelectric switching,” he acknowledges. Tunable and mechanically robust ferroelectric ionic plastic crystals Prof. Zheng Liu and Prof. Junling Wang discussed the challenges that they and their colleagues encountered in conducting their study published in Nature Communications. “With reduced dimension, ferroelectricity – namely, long-range electric-dipole order – becomes fragile owing to the depolarization field that is opposing its own electric polarization,” Liu tells Phys.org. “The depolarization field inherently arises in ferroelectric materials due to the imperfect screening of bound charges,” that is, those bound to molecules and so cannot move in response to an external electromagnetic force. The difficulty lies in maintaining a precise geometry, Liu adds, because when the ferroelectric material’s thickness is reduced to its two-dimensional limit, the depolarization field can increase by orders of magnitude. At that point, the depolarization field may place the ferroelectric material into a paraelectric state, the result being disordered electric dipoles with a temporary polarization only when in the presence of an electric field. Therefore, the electrical boundary conditions are extremely important when exploring ferroelectricity at the material’s 2D limit. Moreover, he adds, reporting the experimental observation of switchable polarization in CuInP2S6 films down to 4 nm at room temperature, thickness reduction will greatly weaken the out-of-plane ferroelectric polarization. “This makes characterization of the ferroelectricity very difficult. Moreover, the large ionic conductivity of this material makes the polarization switching quite challenging. We therefore had to choose a small electric field that is just above the coercive field to avoid unwanted ionic motion.”Other concerns include demonstrating the potential of this 2D ferroelectric material by preparing a van der Waals ferroelectric diode formed by CuInP2S6/Si heterostructure. “In the case of CuInP2S6, the chemical composition and phase stability also play a role in stabilizing ferroelectric states – and in the 2D limit, it is difficult to determine the ferroelectricity with traditional methods, such as the time-dependent ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurement, due to large leakage current,” lead author Liu Fucai points out. Regarding potential, he explains that due to the relatively large band gap and thus weak light absorption, few-layer CuInP2S6 appears almost transparent on silicon (Si) substrate. “This situation makes the fabrication of the van der Waals heterostructure quite challenging during the lithography process.” Figure 3 | Ferroelectric polarization switching by PFM for CIPS flakes with different thicknesses. (a) The I–V curves from the typical vdW CIPS/Si diode with 30 nm thick CIPS, by sweeping the bias from 2.5 to −2.5 V, and then back to 2.5 V. Inset is the schematic of the device. (b) Resistance-switching voltage hysteresis loop of the diode measured at a bias voltage of −1.3 V. The schematic representations of the ON and OFF states with respect to the polarization direction are shown in the bottom-left and top-right insets, respectively. (c) Out-of-plane PFM amplitude (black) and phase (blue) measurements on the same diode device shown in a. Credit: Fucai Liu, Lu You, Kyle L. Seyler, Xiaobao Li, Peng Yu et al. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016). Copyright © 2016, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. “By driving the AC field at the first harmonic contact resonance,” Wang continues, “the piezoelectric oscillation signal can be greatly enhanced. Thus, the small ferroelectric polarization of the ultrathin CuInP2S6 flakes can still be detected by the AFM, as the signal has been amplified by orders of magnitude. This advanced PFM technique helps us to image the fine domain structure with nanometer lateral resolution and picometer vertical resolution, and thereby realize local ferroelectric switching using an AFM probe.”The paper discusses novel applications, including sensors, actuators, non-volatile memory devices, and various van der Waals heterostructures based on 2D ferroelectricity. “By virtue of the piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric materials always have the piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties that allow the use of atomically-thin CuInP2S6 as a strain sensor with high flexibility, such as electric skin monitoring human body motion,” Liu tells Phys.org. “By using the pyroelectric effect, 2D CuInP2S6 could also be used for thermal energy harvesting, and as we know, commercially available ferroelectric random access memory, or FeRAM” – random-access memory similar to DRAM – “with fast writing speed and low-power consumption, but with destructive readout could be improved by employing a ferroelectric diode to achieve non-destructive readout of the information. Considering the quasi-freestanding nature of 2D materials, ferroelectric diodes, or even ferroelectric tunnel junctions with an atomically thin ferroelectric layer may have a much higher ON/OFF ratio, providing the possibility of high-density ferroelectric memories with non-destructive readout.”Regarding the relationship between, and potential applications deriving from, ferro- and piezoelectric effects and van der Waals heterostructure interactions, Liu notes that vertically stacking of different 2D materials with van der Waals force have revealed unusual properties and have been investigated for the application of tunneling transistors, light emitting diodes, and light harvesting devices. “Incorporating ferroelectricity to the van der Waals heterostructure could demonstrate new functionality, such as ferroelectric field transistors and optoelectronic memory, by combining CuInP2S6 with 2D semiconductors.” © 2016 Phys.org
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further How the motility structure of the unicellular archaea is fixed to their surface Citation: Viruses found to attack ocean archaea far more extensively than thought (2016, October 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-viruses-ocean-archaea-extensively-thought.html Archaea, short for archaebacteria, are microorganisms similar to bacteria, but which have different molecular structures. Many of them exist in the oceans alongside bacteria living off organic matter.The researchers began their study by focusing on viruses that infect prokaryotes, which include both bacteria and archaea—they started with the assumption that most prokaryote deaths in the ocean are due to viral infections, and that, they note, would make the viruses responsible for the release of approximately 0.37 to 0.63 gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere every year. To learn more and to back up their assumptions, the researchers obtained 500 sea bottom soil samples from multiple areas around the world, each of which was rife with prokaryotes. Prior research has shown that bacteria are more common than archaea both on land and in shallow waters, but archaea become much more numerous in deeper water—the researchers found they made up approximately 12 percent on average of prokaryotes in such areas—though in some regions they ran as high as 32 percent.To learn more about the impact of viruses on prokaryotes, the researchers studied the infection rates of prokaryotes using a variety of methods, one which of which was a molecular analysis that revealed genes released by viruses when causing infections. They found that bacteria were infected at an average rate of 1 to 2.2 percent per day, while archaea were infected at nearly double that rate—2.3 to 4.3 percent. This shows, the team claims, that archaea are far more susceptible to viral than bacterial infection. They then calculated that archaea deaths due to viral infection accounted for approximately 15 to 30 percent of all carbon emissions from prokaryote deaths. They sum up their analysis by suggesting that archaea play a more vital role in the life-cycle of the deep sea than has been thought. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from Italy, Australia, the U.S. and Japan has found that viruses are the main culprit in killing archaea in the deep sea. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the researchers describe the techniques they used to study archaea in soil samples from multiple deep ocean locations, what they found and what it could mean for global warming. More information: R. Danovaro et al. Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor, Science Advances (2016). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600492AbstractViruses are the most abundant biological entities in the world’s oceans, and they play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. In deep-sea ecosystems, archaea and bacteria drive major nutrient cycles, and viruses are largely responsible for their mortality, thereby exerting important controls on microbial dynamics. However, the relative impact of viruses on archaea compared to bacteria is unknown, limiting our understanding of the factors controlling the functioning of marine systems at a global scale. We evaluate the selectivity of viral infections by using several independent approaches, including an innovative molecular method based on the quantification of archaeal versus bacterial genes released by viral lysis. We provide evidence that, in all oceanic surface sediments (from 1000- to 10,000-m water depth), the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria. We also found that, within deep-sea benthic archaea, the impact of viruses was mainly directed at members of specific clades of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota. Although archaea represent, on average, ~12% of the total cell abundance in the top 50 cm of sediment, virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one-third of the total microbial biomass killed, resulting in the release of ~0.3 to 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year globally. Our results indicate that viral infection represents a key mechanism controlling the turnover of archaea in surface deep-sea sediments. We conclude that interactions between archaea and their viruses might play a profound, previously underestimated role in the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems and in global biogeochemical cycles. © 2016 Phys.org Journal information: Science Advances Credit: Tiago Fioreze / Wikipedia
© 2018 Phys.org Virus cause of more than 170 dolphin deaths in Brazil Explore further Climate change is expected to have an impact on wildlife across the globe. As temperatures creep upward, researchers study various species to better understand how this might affect them. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn more about the food intake needs of bottlenose dolphins living off the coast of Florida in Sarasota Bay.To understand how much food a wild dolphin requires to live, the team looked at ocean temperatures, various states of dolphin activity and most particularly at the dolphins themselves. They noted that dolphins, like other mammals, require energy to fuel brain activity and to keep up with busy muscles—and also to keep warm. Because of this, they require different amounts of food depending on how active they are and how cold the water is.To calculate the caloric needs of the dolphins, the researchers started with data from prior studies, which have shown that the daily metabolic rate for many species averages out to approximately three to six times that of their resting rate. For the dolphins, that meant capturing several specimens and measuring their metabolic rate while they were kept at rest and then multiplying by three to six to get their average rates.The team reports that they found that the dolphins under study (with an average weight of 200 kg) required approximately 16,500 to 33,000 calories each day, which they further note translated to approximately 10 to 25 kg of fish each day. As part of the study, the group also tested lung function in the dolphins, which has been found to be a marker of environmental health in marine species.The researchers suggest studies like theirs will help with conservation efforts as the planet changes—if dolphins begin to require less food, for example, due to warmer water, that could lead to an increase in fish populations. More information: A. Fahlman et al. Field energetics and lung function in wild bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus , in Sarasota Bay Florida, Royal Society Open Science (2018). DOI: 10.1098/rsos.171280AbstractWe measured respiratory flow rates, and expired O2 in 32 (2–34 years, body mass [Mb] range: 73–291 kg) common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during voluntary breaths on land or in water (between 2014 and 2017). The data were used to measure the resting O2 consumption rate (V˙O2V˙O2, range: 0.76–9.45 ml O2 min−1 kg−1) and tidal volume (VT, range: 2.2–10.4 l) during rest. For adult dolphins, the resting VT, but not V˙O2V˙O2, correlated with body mass (Mb, range: 141–291 kg) with an allometric mass-exponent of 0.41. These data suggest that the mass-specific VT of larger dolphins decreases considerably more than that of terrestrial mammals (mass-exponent: 1.03). The average resting sV˙O2sV˙O2 was similar to previously published metabolic measurements from the same species. Our data indicate that the resting metabolic rate for a 150 kg dolphin would be 3.9 ml O2 min−1 kg−1, and the metabolic rate for active animals, assuming a multiplier of 3–6, would range from 11.7 to 23.4 ml O2 min−1 kg−1.absbreak Our measurements provide novel data for resting energy use and respiratory physiology in wild cetaceans, which may have significant value for conservation efforts and for understanding the bioenergetic requirements of this species. Citation: Measuring metabolism in dolphins to calculate their caloric needs (2018, January 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-01-metabolism-dolphins-caloric.html Bottlenose Dolphin – Tursiops truncatus. A dolphin surfs the wake of a research boat on the Banana River – near the Kennedy Space Center. Credit: Public Domain A team of researchers from several institutions in the U.S. and one in Spain has measured the metabolism of wild bottlenose dolphins in an effort to better understand their caloric needs. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, the group describes measuring the dolphins, what they found, and explain how their findings can help with conservation efforts. Journal information: Royal Society Open Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Kolkata: A writ petition was filed at Calcutta High Court on Wednesday, pointing out the errors in the Bengali translation of the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) question paper this year. Apala Debnath, a medical aspirant, had filed the petition, drawing the attention of the court to the ambiguity and mistakes that had occurred in the examination. It was mentioned in the petition that there were 180 mistakes out of 180 questions in the Bengali version of the NEET question paper. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe medical aspirants who appeared for the examination with Bengali as the medium were confused by the ambiguity, meaningless and incomplete Bengali translation. Most of these students became nervous and hence could not answer the questions which were known to them.It was not possible for the Bengali version students to finish all answers within 3 hours. The petitioner had also raised questions on the role of CBSE, which conducted the examination. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe petition also stated that the students of Bengal were compelled to appear for the examination with xerox copies of question paper and OMR answer sheet. Such incidents were reported on the day of examination as well. The petitioner pointed out that such activities were the result of absolute negligence on the part of CBSE.The petitioner moved to Calcutta High Court, seeking its intervention as neither the Centre nor the CBSE took any initiatives in this regard, particularly after Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee wrote to the Union Human Resources Development Ministry, calling for a re-examination.Following the incident, the city doctors had also written to the Chief Minister and Prime Minister, seeking their intervention.
The Australian Government has come up with an exhibition
Uber Technologies Inc have chosen Bangkok, known for its chaotic traffic, as the first city in Southeast Asia to introduce a one-day free trial for its helicopter service, after launching it in key global metro cities, including Bangalore. Chan Park, Uber’s regional general manager for Southeast Asia, said Bangkok is one of the worst cities in the world for traffic congestion.”This provides high potential for alternative transport platforms,” Bangkok Post quoted him as saying on Thursday. Thailand is among its three fastest-growing markets for its taxi app service in Southeast Asia, it said. Uber Technologies Inc, the smartphone-based cab service company will offer free helicopter rides on demand to Bangkok customers on Sunday from
Kolkata: Mystery shrouds the death of an elderly woman and her daughter whose charred bodies were found inside their apartment in Dum Dum on Friday evening.Police said the victims, identified as Dipti Mukherjee (72) and her daughter Sathi Mukherjee (54) were alone in the flat when the incident happened. Police suspect after preliminary investigation that fire from the gas cylinder led to their death but it is yet to be discovered as to how the charred bodies reached the bedroom. The police have initiated an unnatural death case in this connection and are trying to find out the exact reason. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeA police officer said that a plumber, who was working in another flat, noticed smoke billowing out of the victims’ flat on the first floor of a multi-storeyed building in the housing complex. The incident took place at around 5.30 pm on Friday. He informed others and the state Fire and Emergency Service department was contacted. Fire fighters reached the spot and broke open the door of the flat to find the charred bodies. The bodies have been sent for an autopsy. Police came to know that three persons — Sathi, her husband and her mother — used to live in the flat. Sathi’s husband was not in the flat when theincident took place.
End-of-life dreams and visions (ELDVs) are an intrinsic and comforting part of the dying process, new research has found.“These dreams and visions may improve quality of life and should be treated accordingly,” says James Donnelly, associate professor of counselling and human services at Canisius College in New York.The 66 patients in the study were receiving end-of-life care at the Center for Hospice and Palliative Care in Cheektowaga, New York. Donnelly and his colleagues interviewed the patients daily about the content, frequency and comfort level of their ELDVs. The researchers found that “the most common dreams and visions were of deceased relatives or friends.” Dreams and visions about the deceased were “significantly more comforting” to patients than other kinds of ELDVs, and became more frequent as the person approached death. “This study demonstrates that ELDVs are commonly experienced and characterised by a consistent pattern of realism and emotional significance,” Donnelly said.The study noted that some medical professionals tend to discount pre-death dreams and visions. “If they are seen as delusions or hallucinations, they are treated as problems to be controlled,” Donnelly pointed out. But there is an important distinction between ELDVs and delirium. “During a delirium state, the person has lost their connection to reality and ability to communicate rationally. Delirium is distressing and dangerous, and must be treated medically,” the study said.“In contrast, our study shows that ELDVs are typically comforting, realistic and often very meaningful, highlighting a critical difference,” the researchers noted.The study appeared in the Journal of Palliative Medicine.
Kolkata: A gang of miscreants looted Rs 12 lakh from a petrol pump manager at Hooghly’s Balagarh when he was going to a nearby branch of a nationlised bank to deposit the amount. The incident took place on broad day light on Moday. The victim manager, Bikash Das sustained bullet injuries when he refused to let go of the bag containing cash. He has been undergoing treatment at Calcutta Medical College and Hospital. His condition is stated to be serious. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifePolice said the victim was going to deposit the amount in the bank at around 10.30 am when motorcycle borne miscreants stopped his way near Balagarh.They asked him to hand over the bag. As he refused to do so, one of the miscreants took out a gun and shot at him. The accused snatched the bag from the victim and fledthe spot.According to police, the manager was riding his motorcycle when the incident took place. Das fell on the road after receiving bullet injuries on his left hand. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedA local who came to his rescue was threatened with dire consequences.The miscreants fired in the air to terrorise locals while fleeing the spot.The locals later rescued the injured person and took him to hospital. As his health condition deteriorated, Das was shifted to Calcutta Medical College and Hospital on Monday afternoon. The incident triggered tension in Balagarh area. After being informed, police reached the spot and started a probe. According to the preliminary investigation, police suspect that the miscreants followed the manager from the petrol pump itself. Locals said a similar incident had taken place in Balagarh two years ago. Raids are being conducted to nab the culprits.
Kolkata: The Rajarhat police station has nabbed three notorious criminals armed with sharp weapons and an iron rod from the Khamar area of Rajarhat. In another incident, they have arrested a person with six liters of codeine phosphate mixture from Indira Nagar.According to police, on Monday night they intercepted a no refusal taxi near Khamar area when the said taxi was proceeding towards Kharibari. When police ordered the driver to stop the vehicle, he allegedly increased the speed and tried to flee. Immediately, police chased the taxi and intercepted it within a while. Sensing danger, some of the occupants of the taxi fled from the spot. Police succeeded to nab three miscreants identified as Md Shoud alias Sonu, Md Samal alias Labbu and Amit Kumar Gupta. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAfter securing their detention, police searched the taxi and found two sharp weapons and one iron rod. It is suspected that the miscreants might have had intention to rob someone in the area. On Tuesday, three accused persons were produced before the Chief Judicial Magistrate’s (CJM) Court. Later, the magistrate remanded Shoud and Gupta to police custody for six days. Sources informed that the taxi is registered in the name of one Ajay Gupta. Sleuths suspect that miscreants borrowed the vehicle with intention to commit the crime. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedIn another incident, Rajarhat police station nabbed a notorious criminal identified as Md Sarfuddin alias Sarfu from Indira Nagar and seized six liters of codeine phosphate mixture, which is banned in India. Before 2016, codeine was used to produce cough syrup. Sources informed that Sarfuddin is a taxi driver by profession and used to deal with the banned drug. He is also a member of a criminal gang which was involved in several crimes in the area. He used to live in Narayanpur but for some reasons he left the area and started residing at Anandapur in Kolkata.
Smog, the choking threat which has landed the national capital in a pollution emergency, has been the cause of many respiratory problems in children and adults. When your daily commute feels like living on the edge, what are your other outdoor activities supposed to feel like? According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), it is dangerous to breathe when there is too much smog. Smog contains ozone particles, and elevated ozone levels can have a variety of negative effects on your lungs. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfWhile it is advised to stay indoors when the air is toxic outside, a more practical solution would be to establish a habit of cleansing your respiratory organs through Yoga.If Yoga has been shown to improve the quality of life of lung cancer patients, it could definitely do wonders against other respiratory issues. Here are a few asanas – by Akshar, founder and course director of Bengaluru’s Akshar Yog – you could try to give you relief from chest congestion, respiratory flues and discomfort in breathing. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsivePranayama: This has proved beneficial for those suffering with bronchitis or lung congestion.How to do it:1. While performing pranayama one should make sure that his or her back is straight and should concentrate on the breathing.2. Sahaj Pranayama, which is also called easy breathing, involves breathing a few times deeply.3. Inhale through the nostrils for five counts and hold the breath for 10 counts.4. Exhale through the mouth for 10 counts; this has to be repeated 10-12 times. Adho Mukha Svanasana: This posture strengthens the chest muscles and expands the lung region, increasing its capacity.How to do it:1. From table top position, tuck your toes, straighten your legs and lift your hips towards the ceiling.2. Adjust your hands forward a bit, if necessary, and spread your fingers.3. Keep your spine long, and your head and neck in line with your spine. Hold for one minute.Bhujangasana: This asana opens up the heart and lungs and gives them a good stretch.How to do it:1. Lie on your stomach; engage your back muscles in lifting your head and upper torso.2. Align your elbows underneath your shoulders for support.3. Open your chest and relax your shoulders away from your ears.4. Look straight ahead and hold for one minute.Sukhasana: This heavy breathing seated position relieves yourself from stress, anxiety and exhaustion.How to do it:1. Sit erect, with the feet stretched out towards the front.2. Now cross the legs in such a way that the knees are wide, shins are crossed, and each foot is placed under the knee. Knees must be bent, and legs should be tucked into the torso.3. Feet must be relaxed, and the outer edges must rest on the floor while the inner edges must arch on the shins. Look down on your legs, must see a triangle formed by shins that are crossed and both the thighs.4. Back must be balanced in such a way that the tailbone and the pubic bone are at equal distance from the floor.5. Place the palms stacked up in your lap. Or you can also lay them on the knees palms up or palms down.6. Elongate the tailbone, and firm up the shoulders. But make sure the lower back is not arched in such a way that it pokes the lower ribs forward.
Kolkata: The state Criminal Investigation Department (CID) visited Ranaghat on Monday to interrogate the BJP’s Nadia district president Jagannath Sarkar in connection with Krishnagunj MLA Satyajit Biswas murder case. He was summoned twice before but he failed to meet the investigating officers.On Monday, a team from the CID went to question Sarkar. At present, he is admitted to a nursing home there regarding certain health issues. CID sources claimed that Sarkar stated that he had no knowledge about the murder of the Trinamool MLA. As he was not in a condition to speak in detail, CID sleuths had to leave the nursing home without questioning him in detail. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseSarkar was summoned twice in the past few weeks by the CID as a witness in the Biswas murder case. The CID officials handed over a summon last month but Sarkar had asked for 10 days to appear. Later when CID officers called him on his mobile, Sarkar did not answer. As there was no further communication made from Sarkar’s end, sleuths decided to meet him at his residence. But later, they found that he has been admitted to a nursing home due to some ailment. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata”Our officers questioned him but he stated that he does not know anything regarding the case. Our investigation is on. He may be questioned again after getting discharged from the nursing home,” said Nishat Pervez, Deputy Inspector General (DIG), CID (Operations). Sources claimed that the prime accused of Biswas murder case, identified as Abhijit Pundari, is a BJP worker. Also in the FIR is BJP’s Mukul Roy name. From these cues, it is suspected that Sarkar may have some valuable information regarding the murder case. But Sarkar claimed that he does not know anything about the incident and Pundari. Biswas was shot dead on February 9 while he was attending a Saraswati Puja inauguration ceremony at Majdia, Nadia. The TMC leadership had alleged BJP’s involvement behind the murder. According to locals, Biswas had gone to inaugurate a Saraswati Puja there. After lighting the lamp as part of the formal inauguration, he went to the dais. After completion of the inaugural programme, he disembarked from the dais and sat on a chair in front of the Puja pandal. All of a sudden some unidentified miscreants fired bullets from point-blank range aiming his head and fled the spot. Bullets pierced into his head and Biswas fell on the ground, bleeding profusely. He was immediately rushed to a nearby hospital where doctors declared him brought dead. Later, the investigation was handed over to the CID and sleuths have arrested all the accused persons within a few weeks of the incident.
Too much or too little sleep can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and early death, according to a study of over 116,000 people from across the world published recently. The researchers found that people who slept for longer than the recommended duration of six to eight hours a day had an increased risk of early death or developing diseases of the heart or blood vessels in the brain. Compared to people who slept for the recommended time, those who slept a total of eight to nine hours a day had a five Also Read – Add new books to your shelf per cent increased risk; people sleeping between nine and ten hours a day had an increased risk of 17 per cent and those sleeping more than ten hours a day had a 41 per cent increased risk. They also found a nine per cent increased risk for people who slept a total of six or fewer hours, but this finding was not statistically significant. Before adjusting for factors that might affect the results, the researchers found that for every 1,000 people sleeping six or fewer hours a night, 9.4 developed cardiovascular disease (CVD) or died per year. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThis occurred in 7.8 of those sleeping six to eight hours, 8.4 of those sleeping eight to nine hours, 10.4 of those sleeping nine to ten hours and 14.8 of those sleeping more than ten hours. “Our study shows that the optimal duration of estimated sleep is six to eight hours per day for adults,” said Chuangshi Wang, a PhD student at McMaster University in Canada. “Given that this is an observational study that can only show an association rather than proving a causal relationship, we cannot say that too much sleep per se causes cardiovascular diseases,” Wang said, lead author of the study published in the European Heart Journal. “However, too little sleep could be an underlying contributor to death and cases of cardiovascular disease, and too much sleep may indicate underlying conditions that increase risk,” she said. Associations between sleep and death or cardiovascular and other diseases have been suggested by other studies, but results have been contradictory. In addition, they tended to look at particular populations and did not necessarily take account of the fact that in some countries daytime napping can be common and considered healthy. The study looked at a total of 116,632 adults aged between 35 and 70 years in 21 countries with different income levels in seven geographic regions (North America and Europe, South America, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, China and Africa). During an average (median) follow-up time of nearly eight years, 4,381 people died and 4,365 suffered a major cardiovascular problem such as a heart attack or stroke. Researchers found that regular daytime naps were more common in the Middle East, China, Southeast Asia and South America. The duration of daytime naps varied mainly from 30 to 60 minutes. People who slept six or fewer hours at night, but took a daytime nap, and so slept an average of 6.4 hours a day in total, had a slightly increased risk compared to those who slept between six and eight hours at night without a daytime nap, but this finding was not statistically significant. “Although daytime napping was associated with higher risks of death or cardiovascular problems in those with sufficient or longer sleep at night, this was not the case in people who slept under six hours at night,” Wang said. “In these individuals, a daytime nap seemed to compensate for the lack of sleep at night and to mitigate the risks,” she further added.
Frank Sinatra is one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. He has sold over 150 million records worldwide, and his unique voice remains recognizable and often imitated to this day. Sinatra was born in 1915 into a New Jersey that was already under the control of the Genovese Crime Family.Both of Sinatra’s parents were Italian immigrants, and his connection to the mafia was forged at birth, his Godfather was the Genovese underboss Willie Moretti.The family was named after Vito Genovese.The early to mid-20th century was a golden era for the American mafia. Under the management of Charles “Lucky” Luciano, the five families streamlined their operations and, thanks to Prohibition, they were able to pay or terrorize the right people into turning a blind eye to their illegal operations.After Prohibition ended, the power held by the Mafia continued to grow, and by the 1950s the five families controlled the docks, the worker’s unions, and all construction in New York.Sinatra (far right) with the Hoboken Four on Major Bowes’ Amateur Hour in 1935.They were powerful, dangerous and now could call themselves legitimate businessmen.Sinatra was edgier than the blue-eyed crooner we consider him today. The FBI was particularly interested in his movements and kept a file on him for four decades.Frank SinatraNot that Sinatra cared, as Karen McNally discusses in her 2015 book When Frankie went to Hollywood: Frank Sinatra and the American Male Identity. Sinatra refused pressure to Anglicize his name, he embraced his roots rather than shying away from them.He regularly played up to the stereotype of a tough working-class Italian-American and embraced elements of the criminal underworld as part of this identity; Sinatra himself said that if it weren’t for music, he would “probably have ended up in a life of crime.”Sinatra as Tony RomeSinatra’s Mob ties came in useful while he was chasing his dream. It’s likely that Sinatra’s godfather Willie Moretti had a hand in getting Sinatra his early gigs and it is also likely that, when Sinatra was ready to go solo, Moretti helped Sinatra get out of his contract with Tommy Dorsey; the story goes that Dorsey released Sinatra’s contract for $1 whilst staring down the barrel of a gun.Sinatra’s first wife, Nancy Barbato, was also first cousins with an associate of Moretti.Singer Frank Sinatra with his daughter Nancy, 3, and 1st wife Nancy at home. Photo by Herbert Gehr/The LIFE Images Collection/Getty ImagesThroughout his life, Sinatra denied association with the Mob but was regularly seen socializing with Mob bosses and their associates.Sinatra allegedly introduced Sam Giancana to John F. Kennedy and the President was rumoured to be involved in a mafia plot to kill Fidel Castro.Mob boss Sam Giancana.There was also the time Sinatra was seen attending the Mafia Havana Conference with Lucky Luciano.The press was scandalized but enthralled by Sinatra’s association with the Mob and regularly reported his movements in the gossip columns.Frank Sinatra in 1955.Sinatra, in turn, flaunted these friendships. He would regularly go golfing and gambling with known Mob types and counted Sam Giancana and Bugsy Siegel as good friends.Sinatra had always denied any wrongdoing and at one point, when the rumors grew too intense, he offered to become an informant for the FBI.The offer was rejected, and even after extensive FBI surveillance Sinatra was never charged with any mafia-related crimes.Mugshot of mobster Lucky Luciano in 1936Later in his career, when he owned a share in a Las Vegas casino, Sinatra’s gambling license was revoked when Sam Giancana was spotted in attendance at his casino.Sinatra also came under scrutiny from the FBI due to his political affiliations; he was a champion of civil rights and supported progressive causes, which made him a target of anti-communist McCarthy era paranoia.Frank sinatra in 1989. Photo by Alan Light CC By 2.0Once again, even after extensive FBI investigation, no charges were ever brought against him.Sinatra was a fascinating character who commanded deep loyalty from his friends and counted criminals to be among those he considered close.Read another story from us: The Red Hot Relationship Between Ava Gardner and Frank SinatraThere is no hard proof that he engaged in illegal activity, but both the Mob and Sinatra benefited from their exclusive relationship.
The bones of a woolly mammoth and a woolly rhino were unexpectedly found by a road crew working on an overpass on the A14 in England. The crew was digging near Fenstanton while working on improvements to the road between Cambridge and Huntingdon, says the BBC.The remains were found in what once was an ancient river, and experts say they may be 130,000 years old.Dean Lomax, a paleontologist, called the find “exciting” and “quite uncommon”. Highways England has said they will be sending the bones to London so that specialists can make a thorough analysis.Photo by Highways EnglandApparently, the bones were just the latest in a string of remarkable finds from the team working on the A4.They have already uncovered three Anglo-Saxon villages, henges, Roman kilns, a medieval hamlet, and an Iron Age settlement in the course of their work.Lomax, a visiting scientist at the University of Manchester, said that he was excited that the bones had been uncovered during roadwork, and that “What I’d really like to know is how much of each animal has been found.”Pleistocene of Northern Spain showing woolly mammoth, cave lions eating a reindeer, tarpans, and woolly rhinoceros.He went on to say “Woolly mammoths and woolly rhinos were once a common part of the wildlife here in the UK but recent discoveries like this are quite uncommon” He went on to wonder whether this discovery would prove to be a one-off, or whether other similar discoveries may be preserved in the same area.Only time will tell if there are more discoveries to be made, but the improvements to the A14 are meant to cover 21 miles of road and the creation of a new bypass south of Huntingdon, so there’s a lot of ground to cover.Photo by Highways EnglandAccording to the Guardian, mammoths existed in Britain for much longer than had first been supposed. Scientists who analyzed mammoth remains found in Condover, Shropshire, concluded that Britain’s population of woolly mammoth had not been hunted to extinction; they were probably wiped out as a result of climate change at the end of the last Ice Age.Adrian Lister, of London’s Natural History Museum, was one of the scientists who did the analysis.Woolly mammoth skull discovered by fishermen in the North Sea, at Celtic and Prehistoric Museum, Ireland Author Omigos CC BY-SA 3.0He says that “Mammoths are conventionally believed to have become extinct in north-western Europe about 21,000 years ago during the main ice advance, known as the last glacial maximum.Our new radiocarbon dating of the Condover mammoths changes that by showing that mammoths returned to Britain and survived until about 14,000 years ago.”Improved methods for the purification of samples for carbon dating have made it possible to get much more accurate results.Comparison of woolly mammoth (L) and American mastodon (R). Photo by Dantheman9758 CC BY-SA 3.0Many ancient remains that had been tested prior to those improvements and then tested again using the new techniques have shown the first results to be significantly off.The improved sample purification has allowed for inaccuracies to be rectified.The last Ice Age was between 75,000 and 12,000 years ago, but during that time the Earth’s climate still had a lot of variations, with warmer and colder periods. About 21,000 years ago, an especially cold period began, causing ice sheets to expand all over Britain.It was about that time when mammoths and a lot of other mammals of the time, such as woo;ly rhinos, bison, and giant deer disappeared from Britain.Read another story from us: World’s Only Woolly Mammoth Fur Hat Up For SaleLister’s research suggests that many of those animals came back, however, when the weather warmed back up. He said, “Plant growth had started again, and there was rich grassland and that’s exactly what the mammoths liked. The mammoths had been hiding out in Siberia in relatively low numbers during the glaciation maximum. They came back into Europe for a few thousand years on this rich grassland until the forests arrived and it got really warm, and that’s when they died out completely.”
If the Warriors could sweep the Cavs they would be the greatest team everMost of the NBA media has hotly debated whether LeBron would surpass MJ with another title over the Warriors’ superteam, but not many are talking about what a historical accomplishment it would be if Golden State could manage to go undefeated through the Western Conference and somehow manage to dominate the Cavs in the Finals.Right now, the Warriors are winning by record margins of victory, and even though Colin still gives the Cavs the edge in the Finals, the possibility exists for Golden State to unseat the Bulls as the greatest single team ever.“If the Warriors go 16-0 or 16-1, and win by 17, you’ve got your greatest team ever.” This is the best LeBron James we’ve ever seenThe Cavs crushed the Celtics, 117-104, in Game 1 of the Eastern Conference Finals and LeBron toyed with the Celtics all night in a dominant 38-point, 9 rebound, 7 assist performance that left most people with functioning eyes thinking sweep.Today in The Herd, Colin said LeBron is playing at the highest level of any time in his career, in his 14th year. He’s shooting better than ever from outside, more efficient than ever, and just got close to a month’s rest. If the Cavs sweep, he’ll get even more.Even though the regular season was unwatchable, the Finals grudge match between the powerhouse Warriors and the Cavs will be all that anyone remembers if it comes anywhere near to living up to the hype.With LeBron playing like he is now, Colin thinks the Cavs have the slight edge in the matchup.“The gap is not closing. The gap is widening.” Guests:Doug Gottlieb – FS1 Basketball Analyst and host of The Doug Gottlieb Show is in-studio to explain why LaVar Ball is like a bad Shark Tank contestant; why Markelle Fultz could excel with the Celtics; why he thinks the Cavs can beat the Warriors; and why Klay Thompson needs to play better in the Finals.Michael Rapaport – Comedian and Actor is in-studio to talk NBA Playoffs; Lonzo Ball to the Lakers; why he thinks LaVar Ball is going to negatively impact his son’s career; why LaVar Ball is the new Kris Kardashian; and why McGregor/Mayweather is going to be an embarrasment.Eddie House – NBA Champion and 14-year veteran is in-studio to explain why the Celtics don’t have a prayer against the Cavs; and why the Celtics should keep the #1 pick.Jason Whitlock – FS1 co-host of Speak for Yourself to discuss how the fallout from the LaVar Ball is getting out of hand and who he holds accountable for fanning the flames.Warren Moon – NFL Hall of Famer and Seattle Seahawks broadcaster is in-studio to discuss Gisele revealing Tom Brady has had unreported concussions; how he managed to play at a high level until 44; and if Colin Kaepernick would be a good fit in Seattle.
Nuns aren’t usually known for their athletic prowess, but one Irish nun showed off some ridiculous soccer skills when she was taped juggling with a local police officer.She plays like Messi and prays like Mother Theresa. She’s reportedly a huge fan of Diego Maradona’s ‘Hand of God‘ goal .