Qualcomm and Apple kick off latest patent case

first_imgQualcomm, based in San Diego, California, is one of the world’s biggest mobile chipmakers.  Shara Tibken/CNET Apple and Qualcomm kicked off the latest chapter in a long-running legal battle over patents and licensing agreements in the chipmaker’s hometown of San Diego, California, on Monday.Qualcomm, which supplies chips and modems for much of the mobile phone industry, says Apple infringed on three of its patents in some versions of the popular iPhone. The chipmaker wants up to $1.41 per iPhone that infringed on its intellectual property sold during a certain period between 2017 and 2018. The exact figure was not disclosed, though it’s estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars or more. That sum would be a drop in the bucket for Apple — which briefly became a $1 trillion company last year — but a victory for Qualcomm would help to brandish its reputation as a mobile components innovator. “Qualcomm, although it doesn’t make a smartphone — it doesn’t have a product that you and I would buy — it develops a lot of technology in smartphones,” David Nelson, the lead attorney representing Qualcomm, said in an opening statement on Monday. The trial concerns three patents that Qualcomm claims Apple infringed on. One patent allows a smartphone to quickly connect to the internet once the device is turned on. Another deals with graphics processing and battery life. The third lets apps on your phone download data more easily by directing traffic between the apps processor and the modem. 2:13 Apple vs. Qualcomm: Court battles explained See All Aug 31 • Your phone screen is gross. Here’s how to clean it Apple During opening remarks, both sides zoomed in on the patent that focuses on boot-up technology when the phone is turned on. Nelson said the technology in the patent was “foundational” to the company’s work, long before it was registered. Apple claims Qualcomm stole the idea for that innovation from then-Apple engineer Arjuna Siva, who the company said discussed the idea with Qualcomm engineers in an email.”This one is truly the most outrageous allegation in the case,” Juanita Brooks, lead counsel for Apple, said of the infringement claim in opening statements. “They took the idea from us and ran down to the patent office.”A long battleThe courtroom clash between Apple and Qualcomm is part of a wide-ranging legal saga. Two years ago, the Federal Trade Commission, aided by heavyweights including Apple and Intel, accused Qualcomm of operating a monopoly in modem chips. The agency argued Qualcomm’s high royalty rates stopped competitors from entering the market, which has driven up the cost of phones and hurt consumers. That trial took place in January, and the parties are currently waiting for a decision from US District Judge Lucy Koh. The San Diego trial, presided over by US District Judge Dana Sabraw, is more technical than the other fronts of the legal battle. But it could have implications on how your phone is made and how much it costs. The trial also sets the stage for an April meeting between the two companies over licensing deals. The two companies have been arguing over royalties Apple paid Qualcomm for licensing the chipmaker’s technology. Apple paid $7.50 per iPhone, but Apple COO Jeff Williams testified in January that the price should have been a fifth of that price.The iPhone was first introduced in 2007, but the company didn’t start using Qualcomm chips for network connectivity until 2011. In 2016, the company started using Intel modems in some models of the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus. Now, Apple has opted for Intel’s modems over Qualcomm’s in all its latest phones. ‘Eureka’ and ‘Maverick’After opening statements on Monday, Qualcomm’s first witness was James Thompson, the company’s chief technologist. He described Qualcomm’s relationship with Apple. He said the company typically began working on modems for an iPhone about four years before the phone would be released. “We defined the cellular component of that product,” he said. He also said both companies had nicknames for each other. Apple called Qualcomm “Eureka,” and Qualcomm called Apple “Maverick.”A verdict in the San Diego trial, which will be decided by a jury of eight people, is expected in mid-March.  Originally published at 1:45 p.m. PT.Update, 3:26 p.m. PT: Adds more detail from opening statements; and 4:25 p.m. PT: Adds more detail. reading • Qualcomm and Apple kick off latest patent case Tech Industry 0 Share your voice Post a comment Aug 31 • Best places to sell your used electronics in 2019 • Tags Aug 31 • iPhone XR vs. iPhone 8 Plus: Which iPhone should you buy? Sep 1 • iPhone 11, Apple Watch 5 and more: The final rumors Qualcomm Apple Now playing: Watch this:last_img read more

6 million voter email addresses left unsecured for 9 years researchers say

first_img Share your voice Tags More than 6 million email addresses that appear to have been collected by political campaigners were exposed online for almost a decade, researchers said Tuesday. Graphic by Pixabay/Illustration by CNET A list of 6.2 million email addresses amassed by Democratic campaign organizers appears to have been exposed on the internet for nearly a decade. Researchers at UpGuard found the list on an unsecured cloud server that would have let anyone with an internet connection read it.The cache, which contains only email addresses and no other identifying information, was uploaded by a former staffer with the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, or DSCC. The list appeared to include mostly personal email addresses, and the largest portion were AOL and Yahoo accounts. In a blog post Tuesday, UpGuard researchers acknowledged the scope of the information isn’t large, but said it should still be concerning.They said it shows that political campaigns are prone to collecting large amounts of information on voters and then failing to secure it. That can leave voter information exposed long after polls close and votes are counted. “If political data can be exposed for 10 years, the risk created by that data has an unknown half-life,” the researchers said. The DSCC confirmed that the data was uploaded by a former staffer, and that the spreadsheet has now been removed.”Since the 2010 cycle, the DSCC now has a centralized and secure management of assets to ensure accounts are following proper security best practices, and all users and staff go through security awareness training to prevent issues like this,” DSCC spokesman Stewart Boss said in a statement.Originally published Aug. 6, 12:41 p.m. PT.Update, 1:37 p.m.: Adds comment from the DSCC. Security Internet 2 Comments Hacking Privacylast_img read more

Viruses found to attack ocean archaea far more extensively than thought

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further How the motility structure of the unicellular archaea is fixed to their surface Citation: Viruses found to attack ocean archaea far more extensively than thought (2016, October 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-viruses-ocean-archaea-extensively-thought.html Archaea, short for archaebacteria, are microorganisms similar to bacteria, but which have different molecular structures. Many of them exist in the oceans alongside bacteria living off organic matter.The researchers began their study by focusing on viruses that infect prokaryotes, which include both bacteria and archaea—they started with the assumption that most prokaryote deaths in the ocean are due to viral infections, and that, they note, would make the viruses responsible for the release of approximately 0.37 to 0.63 gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere every year. To learn more and to back up their assumptions, the researchers obtained 500 sea bottom soil samples from multiple areas around the world, each of which was rife with prokaryotes. Prior research has shown that bacteria are more common than archaea both on land and in shallow waters, but archaea become much more numerous in deeper water—the researchers found they made up approximately 12 percent on average of prokaryotes in such areas—though in some regions they ran as high as 32 percent.To learn more about the impact of viruses on prokaryotes, the researchers studied the infection rates of prokaryotes using a variety of methods, one which of which was a molecular analysis that revealed genes released by viruses when causing infections. They found that bacteria were infected at an average rate of 1 to 2.2 percent per day, while archaea were infected at nearly double that rate—2.3 to 4.3 percent. This shows, the team claims, that archaea are far more susceptible to viral than bacterial infection. They then calculated that archaea deaths due to viral infection accounted for approximately 15 to 30 percent of all carbon emissions from prokaryote deaths. They sum up their analysis by suggesting that archaea play a more vital role in the life-cycle of the deep sea than has been thought. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from Italy, Australia, the U.S. and Japan has found that viruses are the main culprit in killing archaea in the deep sea. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the researchers describe the techniques they used to study archaea in soil samples from multiple deep ocean locations, what they found and what it could mean for global warming.center_img More information: R. Danovaro et al. Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor, Science Advances (2016). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600492AbstractViruses are the most abundant biological entities in the world’s oceans, and they play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. In deep-sea ecosystems, archaea and bacteria drive major nutrient cycles, and viruses are largely responsible for their mortality, thereby exerting important controls on microbial dynamics. However, the relative impact of viruses on archaea compared to bacteria is unknown, limiting our understanding of the factors controlling the functioning of marine systems at a global scale. We evaluate the selectivity of viral infections by using several independent approaches, including an innovative molecular method based on the quantification of archaeal versus bacterial genes released by viral lysis. We provide evidence that, in all oceanic surface sediments (from 1000- to 10,000-m water depth), the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria. We also found that, within deep-sea benthic archaea, the impact of viruses was mainly directed at members of specific clades of Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota. Although archaea represent, on average, ~12% of the total cell abundance in the top 50 cm of sediment, virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one-third of the total microbial biomass killed, resulting in the release of ~0.3 to 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year globally. Our results indicate that viral infection represents a key mechanism controlling the turnover of archaea in surface deep-sea sediments. We conclude that interactions between archaea and their viruses might play a profound, previously underestimated role in the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems and in global biogeochemical cycles. © 2016 Phys.org Journal information: Science Advances Credit: Tiago Fioreze / Wikipedialast_img read more