Qualcomm, based in San Diego, California, is one of the world’s biggest mobile chipmakers. Shara Tibken/CNET Apple and Qualcomm kicked off the latest chapter in a long-running legal battle over patents and licensing agreements in the chipmaker’s hometown of San Diego, California, on Monday.Qualcomm, which supplies chips and modems for much of the mobile phone industry, says Apple infringed on three of its patents in some versions of the popular iPhone. The chipmaker wants up to $1.41 per iPhone that infringed on its intellectual property sold during a certain period between 2017 and 2018. The exact figure was not disclosed, though it’s estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars or more. That sum would be a drop in the bucket for Apple — which briefly became a $1 trillion company last year — but a victory for Qualcomm would help to brandish its reputation as a mobile components innovator. “Qualcomm, although it doesn’t make a smartphone — it doesn’t have a product that you and I would buy — it develops a lot of technology in smartphones,” David Nelson, the lead attorney representing Qualcomm, said in an opening statement on Monday. The trial concerns three patents that Qualcomm claims Apple infringed on. One patent allows a smartphone to quickly connect to the internet once the device is turned on. Another deals with graphics processing and battery life. The third lets apps on your phone download data more easily by directing traffic between the apps processor and the modem. 2:13 Apple vs. Qualcomm: Court battles explained See All Aug 31 • Your phone screen is gross. Here’s how to clean it Apple During opening remarks, both sides zoomed in on the patent that focuses on boot-up technology when the phone is turned on. Nelson said the technology in the patent was “foundational” to the company’s work, long before it was registered. Apple claims Qualcomm stole the idea for that innovation from then-Apple engineer Arjuna Siva, who the company said discussed the idea with Qualcomm engineers in an email.”This one is truly the most outrageous allegation in the case,” Juanita Brooks, lead counsel for Apple, said of the infringement claim in opening statements. “They took the idea from us and ran down to the patent office.”A long battleThe courtroom clash between Apple and Qualcomm is part of a wide-ranging legal saga. Two years ago, the Federal Trade Commission, aided by heavyweights including Apple and Intel, accused Qualcomm of operating a monopoly in modem chips. The agency argued Qualcomm’s high royalty rates stopped competitors from entering the market, which has driven up the cost of phones and hurt consumers. That trial took place in January, and the parties are currently waiting for a decision from US District Judge Lucy Koh. The San Diego trial, presided over by US District Judge Dana Sabraw, is more technical than the other fronts of the legal battle. But it could have implications on how your phone is made and how much it costs. The trial also sets the stage for an April meeting between the two companies over licensing deals. The two companies have been arguing over royalties Apple paid Qualcomm for licensing the chipmaker’s technology. Apple paid $7.50 per iPhone, but Apple COO Jeff Williams testified in January that the price should have been a fifth of that price.The iPhone was first introduced in 2007, but the company didn’t start using Qualcomm chips for network connectivity until 2011. In 2016, the company started using Intel modems in some models of the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus. Now, Apple has opted for Intel’s modems over Qualcomm’s in all its latest phones. ‘Eureka’ and ‘Maverick’After opening statements on Monday, Qualcomm’s first witness was James Thompson, the company’s chief technologist. He described Qualcomm’s relationship with Apple. He said the company typically began working on modems for an iPhone about four years before the phone would be released. “We defined the cellular component of that product,” he said. He also said both companies had nicknames for each other. Apple called Qualcomm “Eureka,” and Qualcomm called Apple “Maverick.”A verdict in the San Diego trial, which will be decided by a jury of eight people, is expected in mid-March. Originally published at 1:45 p.m. PT.Update, 3:26 p.m. PT: Adds more detail from opening statements; and 4:25 p.m. PT: Adds more detail. reading • Qualcomm and Apple kick off latest patent case Tech Industry 0 Share your voice Post a comment Aug 31 • Best places to sell your used electronics in 2019 • Tags Aug 31 • iPhone XR vs. iPhone 8 Plus: Which iPhone should you buy? Sep 1 • iPhone 11, Apple Watch 5 and more: The final rumors Qualcomm Apple Now playing: Watch this:
Foldable Phones Tablets Phones Share your voice Now playing: Watch this: Google Samsung Post a comment 0 More foldable phones coming from Samsung Google’s patent application included several sketches of a potential foldable device. Google Samsung’s Galaxy Fold made a splash at Unpacked in February. Since then, more foldable phones have been unveiled as companies grab at the latest phone trend. Google may be looking to toss its hat in the foldable ring, according to a patent application discovered by Patently Mobile on Tuesday. While a patent application doesn’t mean anything is set in stone, it does mean Google is at least thinking about a foldable device. The patent, published in December, describes the device like so: “[a] foldable display of a computing device includes a back stiffening layer, a transparent frontplate layer, a transparent cover window layer, and an OLED display layer disposed between the back stiffening layer and the transparent frontplate layer.” Several sketches included in the patent show a device that seems to fold like a book or wallet. Another sketch shows the device folded in a “Z” shape. Google didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment. 3:13 Tags
Pandya has perfected Dhoni’s helicopter shotTwitterJuly 7 happens to be the birthday of Mahendra Singh Dhoni. Wishes are pouring in for the former World Cup-winning Indian captain from all over. But you can trust Hardik Pandya to do something cheeky and unique. The Baroda all-rounder posted a tweet on his timeline with a 6-second GIF of him and MSD, the latter’s face apparently covered with his birthday cake, together swinging their hands in the motion of playing a helicopter shot.It can be recalled that while Dhoni is regarded as the progenitor of this amazing stroke, Pandya too has taken a great liking to it and has played it successfully more than once in this year’s IPL. It’s not as if he is the first one to attempt emulating Dhoni. Even Mohammad Shahzad, the wicketkeeper-batsman in the Afghanistan team, who opened the innings for his side, had managed to copy the shot to some extent during the 2012 World T20 in Sri Lanka.Happy birthday Mahi bhai! Everyday spent with you is a chance to learn and grow. Thank you for being one of the biggest role models in my life ❤️? #HappyBirthdayDhoni @msdhoni pic.twitter.com/JUsEMkZYOK— hardik pandya (@hardikpandya7) July 7, 2019TwitterHowever, Shahzad was only partially successful as his helicopter shot only resembled the original. In the case of Hardik, he not only managed to copy it fully but perfect it during the IPL by sending the ball into the stands. Needless to say, Dhoni wouldn’t mind this, especially if Hardik uses this shot to good effect in the upcoming semi-final of the World Cup against New Zealand and, possibly, in the final as well.The fact that both MSD and Pandya were in such good mood can be ascribed to the fact that India were able to register a dominant win over Sri Lanka in their last league stage game of the World Cup and, thanks to Australia’s defeat to South Africa, ended up on the top of the points table. This also means that the Men in Blue will be facing the no. 4 placed Kiwis in the semi-final, instead of England. While the Black Caps can never be taken lightly, they certainly seem a much easier proposition than a resurgent England.
A person without talent can not win all the races of life. Yes, luck is essential to achieve big in life, but without skill and right effort, don’t expect to make big.Talent concerns the abilities, skills and expertise that determine what a person can do. The effort involves the degree to which the person deploys their capabilities.Punit Lalwani what will you call him, an Actor? Content creator? Voice over Artist? MC ? or all-rounder. Punit is a hugely talented guy who is blessed with so many things, and he is making count by applying all his skills in various fields.Punit has been part of TV serials as a lead actor in Khwabon ke darmiyan which was shown in the middle east on Zee TV. He always loves to act from his childhood, and he has continued it with and now became a famous actor. His many gigs on Insta and YouTube are quite renowned. He has shown his versatility in his acting, which is loved by everyone.He is also a fabulous voice quality; he has worked as a voice-over artist in radio channel in City 1016. Punit is also a legendary MC; he has hosted many local and international weddings, corporate events and other functions.Punit is also Co-founder of content production channel called Viral Panti 101. He also loves to dance and mind you he is no lesser than professional dancers. Punit is also a mind-blowing dancer he has won many prestigious awards in the past in UAE.Punit is an extremely talented guy; what makes people Ga Ga for him is his perfection. He does things with perfection and versatility is his USP. He is a talent who is going to make pretty big shortly with his multi-talent.Here’s wishing multi-talented Punit Lalwani all the best for all his new ventures. We hope he makes it even more significant in his life with his work.IBT does not endorse any of the above content.
A housewife allegedly committed suicide by setting herself afire at Sholakandi village in Brahmanbaria’s Sarail upazila on Sunday, reports UNB. The deceased was identified as Shima Rani Gope, 28, wife of Nantu Gope of Ajmeriganj upazila in Habiganj district.Mafiz Uddin Bhuiya, officer-in-charge of Sarail police station, said Shima came to visit her father’s house at Sholakandi village few days ago. Shima set herself afire after pouring kerosene in a toilet of the house around 1:15pm, he said. Her charred body was recovered from the toilet after breaking open the door.However, the reason behind her suicide could not be ascertained yet.
To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: Listen X – / 4It’s a question many parents face: Where to turn for child care?There are day care centers, but some parents go the nanny route. And as we’ve found, some of those parents are surprised to discover it’s an unregulated industry in the state of Texas.Emma Robinson is working mother of two. Her family uses a day care, but the center runs on the Houston school schedule.“My husband and I work full time, and we don’t have enough vacation days to take off every day they close,” she explained. So for backup care, they hired a nanny to come to their home. It was mostly fine, but one day Emma says their younger daughter apparently fell from her high chair, scraping her face.Emma was worried and started looking for just who regulates nannies.“I was really surprised to find that CPS couldn’t do anything. That’s where I first turned to… thinking they protect children,” she said.Emma learned that the state agency, that includes Child Protective Services, doesn’t regulate nannies in private homes. She then turned to law enforcement, but got nowhere.“We’re stuck because I’m basically in a corner where nobody can help me…. And I think it’s really important for Texas to regulate nannies,” she said. “I fear that nothing is going to change in this issue until something terrible happens.”Emma said it appeared to her that nanny agencies are, basically, self-regulating.“They’re the gatekeepers,” Emma said. “That, to me, is scary.”But some nanny agencies say they do aggressively self-regulate.Michelle LaRowe is the Executive Director at Morningside Nannies, an agency in Houston. She says their rigorous, self-imposed regulations mean that only two of every ten prospective nannies pass screening tests.“Because there’s no regulations in place, we choose to set ourselves to the higher standard,” LaRowe said. “Someone who has been in this industry for more than half of my life, I have seen the good, I have seen the bad, I have seen the ugly.”So has Chioma Johnson. She is a child care licensing supervisor at the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services. “Even in day care center, and a daycare home, things happen, but there’s also regulation. And there’s at least someone to come in, and investigate, and make sure it doesn’t happen again,” she explained. “In a nanny situation, all you have is the law and the law is written very loosely…. But typically when things change, it’s because something happened…. That would be the only way I can see regulation happening for nanny agencies.”Christina Triantaphyllis is the Chief Officer of Public Policy and Strategic Initiatives at Collaborative for Children, a non-profit that advocates for kids. She says she hasn’t seen any good data or reports on the state of nannies in Texas, and analysis would be an important step before implementing regulations.“Understanding where the gaps are that this regulation would be filling would be a good place to start,” she said. “What are nannies experiencing, and what would they need to function and provide a better service? And what parents, who look for nannies or who use nannies, see as the big gaps?”Chioma Johnson, with the state agency, says no matter what type of care you choose: be vigilant.“You have to ask questions. You can’t take things for face-value, now with your child,” she said. “Ask if you have first aid, CPR training. What type of training do you have? What type of background do you have?”Johnson also recommends asking for references, background checks, and checking how thorough the nanny agency’s background checks are. She says it’s also helpful to ask for a nanny agency’s plan-of-action, for when issues arise.“Do they have training in child abuse and neglect, how to recognize child abuse, and how to report it?” Johnson asked.Emma, the mother of two, is concerned that a nanny’s negligent behavior might not be revealed in a routine background check. She’s worried what it will take to bring change. “Some horrible thing will have to happen for lawmakers to take notice,” she said. “And it shouldn’t’ have to be that way. We should be able to make these changes proactively and look and say this is not safe.”Click here for Collaborative for Children’s child care search tool. The group has also compiled a list of steps and a checklist when searching for child care providers (some, of which, can also be applied to nannies).Care.com has compiled a comprehensive list of nanny-specific questions; even a list of questions you are not allowed to ask.Click here for the state database of licensed child care operations. And while nannies in private homes are not licensed, the state of Texas regulates the child care operations that are on this list. State officials recommend utilizing regulated care, and have more information and tips here.According to Collaborative for Children, only 4% of Harris County child care centers are nationally accredited by the main accrediting bodies. Texas Rising Star is a voluntary state quality rating and improvement system for child care providers. 00:00 /03:42 Share
Figure 2 | AFM and piezoresponse images of CIPS with different thicknesses. (a–c) AFM topography (a) PFM amplitude (b) and PFM phase (c) for CIPS flakes ranging from 100 to 7 nm thick, on doped Si substrate. Scale bar in a, 1 μm. (d,e) AFM topography (d) PFM amplitude (e) and phase (f) of 2–4 layer thick CIPS on Au coated SiO2/Si substrate. Scale bar in d, 500 nm. (g) the height (black) and PFM amplitude (blue) profile along the lines shown in d and e, respectively. L, Layers. Credit: Liu F, et al. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016). Copyright © 2016, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Wang describes the ways in which the researchers addressed these challenges. “To characterize ferroelectricity at nanoscale, the most widely used technique is called piezoresponse force microscopy, or PFM, which utilizes the converse piezoelectric effect.” (In the converse piezoelectric effect, materials become strained when an electric field is applied.) This is a technique that can be implemented using a commercially available atomic force microscope (AFM), in which AC bias can be applied to the AFM probe that serves as a moving electrode on top of the sample. The resulting AC electric field will cause the periodic oscillation of the ferroelectric sample due to this converse piezoelectric effect. The oscillation signal can then be detected by the AFM. “The amplitude of the oscillation represents the piezoelectric response that is proportional to the ferroelectric polarization,” Wang explains, “while the phase of the oscillation represents the direction of the polarization.” In their study, the scientists employed a state-of-the-art approach known as Dual AC Resonance Tracking (DART) PFM developed by Asylum Research to amplify the piezoelectric response by taking advantage of the resonance enhancement. The scientists are planning to study the pyroelectric properties of CuInP2S6 at its two-dimensional limit and apply their findings to developing energy harvesting devices. To that end, he adds, because mechanically exfoliated 2D materials are usually small and unsuitable for device applications, chemical vapor deposition growth of atomically thin CuInP2S6 is under development.”Ferroelectric properties are also very interesting for solar cell applications because of efficient ferroelectric polarization-driven carrier separation,” Liu concludes, “so 2D ferroelectricity-based solar cells could be very interesting, In its liquid phase, 2D ferroelectric CuInP2S6 could be easily hybridized with semiconductor 2D or organic materials – and a solar cell based on these hybrids would be very promising.” Figure 5 | Electric characterization of the vdW CIPS/Si diode. (a) The I–V curves from the typical vdW CIPS/Si diode with 30 nm thick CIPS, by sweeping the bias from 2.5 to −2.5 V, and then back to 2.5 V. Inset is the schematic of the device. (b) Resistance-switching voltage hysteresis loop of the diode measured at a bias voltage of −1.3 V. The schematic representations of the ON and OFF states with respect to the polarization direction are shown in the bottom-left and top-right insets, respectively. (c) Out-of-plane PFM amplitude (black) and phase (blue) measurements on the same diode device shown in a. Credit: Fucai Liu, Lu You, Kyle L. Seyler, Xiaobao Li, Peng Yu et al. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016). Copyright © 2016, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Journal information: Nature Communications More information: Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes, Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016), doi:10.1038/ncomms12357Related:1. Subatomic deformation driven by vertical piezoelectricity from CdS ultrathin films, Science Advances 01 Jul 2016, Vol. 2, no. 7, e1600209, doi:10.1126/sciadv.16002092. Picoscale precision though ultrathin film piezoelectricity, Phys.org (10 August 2016), http://phys.org/news/2016-08-picoscale-precision-ultrathin-piezoelectricity.html Citation: Cool Constructs: Room temperature out-of-plane ferroelectricity at ultrathin atomic limit (2016, September 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-09-cool-room-temperature-out-of-plane-ferroelectricity.html , Science Advances This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Figure 1 | Crystal structure and characterization of CIPS. (a,b) The side view (a) and side view (b) for the crystal structure of CIPS (CuInP2S6) with vdW gap between the layers. Within a layer, the Cu, In and P–P form separate triangular networks. The polarization direction is indicated in by the arrow. (b) The ferroelectric hysteresis loop of a 4-μm-thick CIPS flake. (c) AFM image of the CIPS flakes with different thicknesses. Scale bar, 2 μm. (d) The height profile along the line shown in c. Clear step height of 0.7 nm corresponding to single layer thickness of CIPS can be observed. L, Layers. Credit: Liu F, et al. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016). Copyright © 2016, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. (Phys.org)—Optoelectronic devices that combine electronics and photonics are incorporating two-dimensional (2D) materials for a range of applications. At the same time, cooperative phenomena – in which a system’s individual components appear to act as a single entity rather than independently – have yet to be widely investigated, an important example being ferroelectricity (spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by an electric field) in the 2D limit. Recently, however, scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore have demonstrated room-temperature out-of-plane ferroelectricity (that is, orthogonal to the 2D material) in 2D CuInP2S6 (copper indium thiophosphate) with a ~320 K transition temperature, as well as switchable polarization in 4 nm CuInP2S6 flakes. The researchers state that their findings create the possibility of sensors, actuators, non-volatile memory devices, various van der Waals heterostructures (devices made from layers of dissimilar 2D crystals in which forces are based on molecular attraction or repulsion rather than covalent or ionic bonds), and other novel applications based on 2D ferroelectricity. Finally, in demonstrating a non-volatile memory device with an on/off ratio of ~100 in a CuInP2S6/Si ferroelectric diode, Liu notes that this investigation is just a preliminary demonstration of the possible applications of the 2D ferroelectric material. “A lot of work needs to be done to fully understand the transport mechanisms and how it is coupled to the ferroelectric switching,” he acknowledges. Tunable and mechanically robust ferroelectric ionic plastic crystals Prof. Zheng Liu and Prof. Junling Wang discussed the challenges that they and their colleagues encountered in conducting their study published in Nature Communications. “With reduced dimension, ferroelectricity – namely, long-range electric-dipole order – becomes fragile owing to the depolarization field that is opposing its own electric polarization,” Liu tells Phys.org. “The depolarization field inherently arises in ferroelectric materials due to the imperfect screening of bound charges,” that is, those bound to molecules and so cannot move in response to an external electromagnetic force. The difficulty lies in maintaining a precise geometry, Liu adds, because when the ferroelectric material’s thickness is reduced to its two-dimensional limit, the depolarization field can increase by orders of magnitude. At that point, the depolarization field may place the ferroelectric material into a paraelectric state, the result being disordered electric dipoles with a temporary polarization only when in the presence of an electric field. Therefore, the electrical boundary conditions are extremely important when exploring ferroelectricity at the material’s 2D limit. Moreover, he adds, reporting the experimental observation of switchable polarization in CuInP2S6 films down to 4 nm at room temperature, thickness reduction will greatly weaken the out-of-plane ferroelectric polarization. “This makes characterization of the ferroelectricity very difficult. Moreover, the large ionic conductivity of this material makes the polarization switching quite challenging. We therefore had to choose a small electric field that is just above the coercive field to avoid unwanted ionic motion.”Other concerns include demonstrating the potential of this 2D ferroelectric material by preparing a van der Waals ferroelectric diode formed by CuInP2S6/Si heterostructure. “In the case of CuInP2S6, the chemical composition and phase stability also play a role in stabilizing ferroelectric states – and in the 2D limit, it is difficult to determine the ferroelectricity with traditional methods, such as the time-dependent ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurement, due to large leakage current,” lead author Liu Fucai points out. Regarding potential, he explains that due to the relatively large band gap and thus weak light absorption, few-layer CuInP2S6 appears almost transparent on silicon (Si) substrate. “This situation makes the fabrication of the van der Waals heterostructure quite challenging during the lithography process.” Figure 3 | Ferroelectric polarization switching by PFM for CIPS flakes with different thicknesses. (a) The I–V curves from the typical vdW CIPS/Si diode with 30 nm thick CIPS, by sweeping the bias from 2.5 to −2.5 V, and then back to 2.5 V. Inset is the schematic of the device. (b) Resistance-switching voltage hysteresis loop of the diode measured at a bias voltage of −1.3 V. The schematic representations of the ON and OFF states with respect to the polarization direction are shown in the bottom-left and top-right insets, respectively. (c) Out-of-plane PFM amplitude (black) and phase (blue) measurements on the same diode device shown in a. Credit: Fucai Liu, Lu You, Kyle L. Seyler, Xiaobao Li, Peng Yu et al. Room-temperature ferroelectricity in CuInP2S6 ultrathin flakes. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12357 (2016). Copyright © 2016, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. “By driving the AC field at the first harmonic contact resonance,” Wang continues, “the piezoelectric oscillation signal can be greatly enhanced. Thus, the small ferroelectric polarization of the ultrathin CuInP2S6 flakes can still be detected by the AFM, as the signal has been amplified by orders of magnitude. This advanced PFM technique helps us to image the fine domain structure with nanometer lateral resolution and picometer vertical resolution, and thereby realize local ferroelectric switching using an AFM probe.”The paper discusses novel applications, including sensors, actuators, non-volatile memory devices, and various van der Waals heterostructures based on 2D ferroelectricity. “By virtue of the piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric materials always have the piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties that allow the use of atomically-thin CuInP2S6 as a strain sensor with high flexibility, such as electric skin monitoring human body motion,” Liu tells Phys.org. “By using the pyroelectric effect, 2D CuInP2S6 could also be used for thermal energy harvesting, and as we know, commercially available ferroelectric random access memory, or FeRAM” – random-access memory similar to DRAM – “with fast writing speed and low-power consumption, but with destructive readout could be improved by employing a ferroelectric diode to achieve non-destructive readout of the information. Considering the quasi-freestanding nature of 2D materials, ferroelectric diodes, or even ferroelectric tunnel junctions with an atomically thin ferroelectric layer may have a much higher ON/OFF ratio, providing the possibility of high-density ferroelectric memories with non-destructive readout.”Regarding the relationship between, and potential applications deriving from, ferro- and piezoelectric effects and van der Waals heterostructure interactions, Liu notes that vertically stacking of different 2D materials with van der Waals force have revealed unusual properties and have been investigated for the application of tunneling transistors, light emitting diodes, and light harvesting devices. “Incorporating ferroelectricity to the van der Waals heterostructure could demonstrate new functionality, such as ferroelectric field transistors and optoelectronic memory, by combining CuInP2S6 with 2D semiconductors.” © 2016 Phys.org